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DEFINITION: Observe, research, and interpret celestial and astronomical phenomena to increase basic knowledge and apply such information to practical problems.
1. Studies celestial phenomena from ground or above atmosphere, using various optical devices, such as telescopes situated on ground or attached to satellites.
2. Studies history, structure, extent, and evolution of stars, stellar systems, and universe.
3. Calculates orbits and determines sizes, shapes, brightness, and motions of different celestial bodies.
4. Computes positions of sun, moon, planets, stars, nebulae, and galaxies.
5. Determines exact time by celestial observations and conducts research into relationships between time and space.
6. Analyzes wave lengths of radiation from celestial bodies, as observed in all ranges of spectrum.
7. Develops mathematical tables giving positions of sun, moon, planets, and stars at given times for use by air and sea navigators.
8. Designs optical, mechanical and electronic instruments for astronomical research.
Knowledge elements are ranked by importance.
Knowledge and prediction of physical principles, laws, and applications including air, water, material dynamics, light, atomic principles, heat, electric theory, earth formations, and meteorological and related natural phenomena
Knowledge of numbers, their operations, and interrelationships including arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, and their applications
50 Computers and Electronics
Knowledge of electric circuit boards, processors, chips, and computer hardware and software, including applications and programming
Knowledge of design techniques, principles, tools and instruments involved in the production and use of precision technical plans, blueprints, drawings, and models
46 English Language
Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar
46 Engineering and Technology
Knowledge of equipment, tools, mechanical devices, and their uses to produce motion, light, power, technology, and other applications
42 History and Archeology
Knowledge of past historical events and their causes, indicators, and impact on particular civilizations and cultures
Knowledge of the composition, structure, and properties of substances and of the chemical processes and transformations that they undergo. This includes uses of chemicals and their interactions, danger signs, production techniques, and disposal methods
29 Education and Training
Knowledge of instructional methods and training techniques including curriculum design principles, learning theory, group and individual teaching techniques, design of individual development plans, and test design principles
Knowledge of various methods for describing the location and distribution of land, sea, and air masses including their physical locations, relationships, and characteristics
Knowledge of machines and tools, including their designs, uses, benefits, repair, and maintenance
25 Communications and Media
Knowledge of media production, communication, and dissemination techniques and methods including alternative ways to inform and entertain via written, oral, and visual media
Knowledge of transmission, broadcasting, switching, control, and operation of telecommunications systems
Knowledge of administrative and clerical procedures and systems such as word processing systems, filing and records management systems, stenography and transcription, forms design principles, and other office procedures and terminology
13 Building and Construction
Knowledge of materials, methods, and the appropriate tools to construct objects, structures, and buildings
13 Administration and Management
Knowledge of principles and processes involved in business and organizational planning, coordination, and execution. This includes strategic planning, resource allocation, manpower modeling, leadership techniques, and production methods
8 Economics and Accounting
Knowledge of economic and accounting principles and practices, the financial markets, banking, and the analysis and reporting of financial data
4 Law, Government and Jurisprudence
Knowledge of laws, legal codes, court procedures, precedents, government regulations, executive orders, agency rules, and the democratic political process
4 Foreign Language
Knowledge of the structure and content of a foreign (non-English) language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition and grammar, and pronunciation
Skills elements are ranked by importance.
Using mathematics to solve problems
Using scientific methods to solve problems
92 Information Gathering
Knowing how to find information and identifying essential information
88 Reading Comprehension
Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents
88 Critical Thinking
Using logic and analysis to identify the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches
88 Active Learning
Working with new material or information to grasp its implications
79 Information Organization
Finding ways to structure or classify multiple pieces of information
79 Technology Design
Generating or adapting equipment and technology to serve user needs
75 Idea Generation
Generating a number of different approaches to problems
Reorganizing information to get a better approach to problems or tasks
71 Equipment Selection
Determining the kind of tools and equipment needed to do a job
71 Idea Evaluation
Evaluating the likely success of an idea in relation to the demands of the situation
Communicating effectively with others in writing as indicated by the needs of the audience
58 Problem Identification
Identifying the nature of problems
58 Operations Analysis
Analyzing needs and product requirements to create a design
54 Systems Perception
Determining when important changes have occurred in a system or are likely to occur
54 Identifying Downstream Consequences
Determining the long-term outcomes of a change in operations
54 Judgment and Decision Making
Weighing the relative costs and benefits of a potential action
54 Operation and Control
Controlling operations of equipment or systems
46 Solution Appraisal
Observing and evaluating the outcomes of a problem solution to identify lessons learned or redirect efforts
46 Implementation Planning
Developing approaches for implementing an idea
46 Operation Monitoring
Watching gauges, dials, or other indicators to make sure a machine is working properly
Conducting tests to determine whether equipment, software, or procedures are operating as expected
Developing an image of how a system should work under ideal conditions
Talking to others to effectively convey information
Writing computer programs for various purposes
38 Learning Strategies
Using multiple approaches when learning or teaching new things
Assessing how well one is doing when learning or doing something
33 Identification of Key Causes
Identifying the things that must be changed to achieve a goal
29 Product Inspection
Inspecting and evaluating the quality of products
29 Systems Evaluation
Looking at many indicators of system performance, taking into account their accuracy
25 Active Listening
Listening to what other people are saying and asking questions as appropriate
Installing equipment, machines, wiring, or programs to meet specifications
17 Time Management
Managing one's own time and the time of others
Adjusting actions in relation to others' actions
Teaching others how to do something
8 Management of Material Resources
Obtaining and seeing to the appropriate use of equipment, facilities, and materials needed to do certain work
Repairing machines or systems using the needed tools
Persuading others to approach things differently
Determining what is causing an operating error and deciding what to do about it
8 Equipment Maintenance
Performing routine maintenance and determining when and what kind of maintenance is needed
4 Social Perceptiveness
Being aware of others' reactions and understanding why they react the way they do
4 Management of Personnel Resources
Motivating, developing, and directing people as they work, identifying the best people for the job
4 Management of Financial Resources
Determining how money will be spent to get the work done, and accounting for these expenditures
Bringing others together and trying to reconcile differences .
Abilities elements are ranked by importance.
85 Written Comprehension
The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing
85 Mathematical Reasoning
The ability to understand and organize a problem and then to select a mathematical method or formula to solve the problem
85 Inductive Reasoning
The ability to combine separate pieces of information, or specific answers to problems, to form general rules or conclusions. It includes coming up with a logical explanation for why a series of seemingly unrelated events occur together.
80 Deductive Reasoning
The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to come up with logical answers. It involves deciding if an answer makes sense.
75 Number Facility
The ability to add, subtract, multiply, or divide quickly and correctly
70 Written Expression
The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand
60 Night Vision
The ability to see under low light conditions
60 Far Vision
The ability to see details at a distance
60 Depth Perception
The ability to judge which of several objects is closer or farther away from the observer, or to judge the distance between an object and the observer
55 Oral Comprehension
The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences
55 Near Vision
The ability to see details of objects at a close range (within a few feet of the observer)
45 Control Precision
The ability to quickly and repeatedly make precise adjustments in moving the controls of a machine or vehicle to exact positions
45 Fluency of Ideas
The ability to come up with a number of ideas about a given topic. It concerns the number of ideas produced and not the quality, correctness, or creativity of the ideas.
45 Speed of Closure
The ability to quickly make sense of information that seems to be without meaning or organization. It involves quickly combining and organizing different pieces of information into a meaningful pattern
45 Problem Sensitivity
The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing there is a problem.
45 Visual Color Discrimination
The ability to match or detect differences between colors, including shades of color and brightness
40 Category Flexibility
The ability to produce many rules so that each rule tells how to group (or combine) a set of things in a different way.
40 Flexibility of Closure
The ability to identify or detect a known pattern (a figure, object, word, or sound) that is hidden in other distracting material
40 Information Ordering
The ability to correctly follow a given rule or set of rules in order to arrange things or actions in a certain order. The things or actions can include numbers, letters, words, pictures, procedures, sentences, and mathematical or logical operations.
The ability to remember information such as words, numbers, pictures, and procedures
35 Spatial Orientation
The ability to know one's location in relation to the environment, or to know where other objects are in relation to one's self
35 Oral Expression
The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand
35 Arm-Hand Steadiness
The ability to keep the hand and arm steady while making an arm movement or while holding the arm and hand in one position
35 Finger Dexterity
The ability to make precisely coordinated movements of the fingers of one or both hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble very small objects
30 Peripheral Vision
The ability to see objects or movement of objects to one's side when the eyes are focused forward
30 Trunk Strength
The ability to use one's abdominal and lower back muscles to support part of the body repeatedly or continuously over time without "giving out" or fatiguing
30 Manual Dexterity
The ability to quickly make coordinated movements of one hand, a hand together with its arm, or two hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble objects
30 Glare Sensitivity
The ability to see objects in the presence of glare or bright lighting
25 Wrist-Finger Speed
The ability to make fast, simple, repeated movements of the fingers, hands, and wrists
The ability to come up with unusual or clever ideas about a given topic or situation, or to develop creative ways to solve a problem
25 Extent Flexibility
The ability to bend, stretch, twist, or reach out with the body, arms, and/or legs
The ability to imagine how something will look after it is moved around or when its parts are moved or rearranged
25 Perceptual Speed
The ability to quickly and accurately compare letters, numbers, objects, pictures, or patterns. The things to be compared may be presented at the same time or one after the other. This ability also includes comparing a presented object with a remembered object
20 Speech Clarity
The ability to speak clearly so that it is understandable to a listener
10 Rate Control
The ability to time the adjustments of a movement or equipment control in anticipation of changes in the speed and/or direction of a continuously moving object or scene
10 Speech Recognition
The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person
5 Multilimb Coordination
The ability to coordinate movements of two or more limbs together (for example, two arms, two legs, or one leg and one arm) while sitting, standing, or lying down. It does not involve performing the activities while the body is in motion
5 Gross Body Equilibrium
The ability to keep or regain one's body balance or stay upright when in an unstable position
5 Selective Attention
The ability to concentrate and not be distracted while performing a task over a period of time
Work activities elements are ranked by importance.
92 Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events
Identifying information received by making estimates or categorizations, recognizing differences or similarities, or sensing changes in circumstances or events.
88 Processing Information
Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, verifying, or processing information or data.
88 Analyzing Data or Information
Identifying underlying principles, reasons, or facts by breaking down information or data into separate parts.
88 Getting Information Needed to Do the Job
Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.
83 Monitor Processes, Material, or Surroundings
Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, often to detect problems or to find out when things are finished.
79 Making Decisions and Solving Problems
Combining, evaluating, and reasoning with information and data to make decisions and solve problems. These processes involve making decisions about the relative importance of information and choosing the best solution.
79 Interpreting Meaning of Information to Others
Translating or explaining what information means and how it can be understood or used to support responses or feedback to others.
67 Implementing Ideas or Programs
Conducting or carrying out work procedures and activities in accord with one's own ideas or information provided through directions/instructions for purposes of installing, modifying, preparing, delivering, constructing, integrating, finishing, or completing programs, systems, structures, or products.
67 Controlling Machines and Processes
Using either control mechanisms or direct physical activity to operate machines or processes (not including computers or vehicles).
63 Estimating Needed Characteristics
Estimating the Characteristics of Materials, Products, Events, or Information: Estimating sizes, distances, and quantities, or determining time, costs, resources, or materials needed to perform a work activity.
63 Judging Qualities of Things, Services, or People
Making judgments about or assessing the value, importance, or quality of things or people.
63 Updating and Using Job-Relevant Knowledge
Keeping up-to-date technically and knowing one's own jobs' and related jobs' functions.
63 Drafting and Specifying Technical Devices
Providing documentation, detailed instructions, drawings, or specifications to inform others about how devices, parts, equipment, or structures are to be fabricated, constructed, assembled, modified, maintained, or used.
63 Documenting or Recording Information
Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in either written form or by electronic/magnetic recording.
54 Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing
Developing plans to accomplish work, and prioritizing and organizing one's own work.
54 Evaluating Information Against Standards
Evaluating information against a set of standards and verifying that it is correct.
50 Handling and Moving Objects
Using one's own hands and arms in handling, installing, forming, positioning, and moving materials, or in manipulating things, including the use of keyboards.
46 Communicating With Other Workers
Providing information to supervisors, fellow workers, and subordinates. This information can be exchanged face-to-face, in writing, or via telephone/electronic transfer.
46 Interacting With Computers
Controlling computer functions by using programs, setting up functions, writing software, or otherwise communicating with computer systems.
42 Providing Consultation and Advice to Others
Providing consultation and expert advice to management or other groups on technical, systems-related, or process related topics.
42 Thinking Creatively
Originating, inventing, designing, or creating new applications, ideas, relationships, systems, or products, including artistic contributions.
38 Communicating With Persons Outside Organization
Communicating with persons outside the organization, representing the organization to customers, the public, government, and other external sources. This information can be exchanged face-to-face, in writing, or via telephone/electronic transfer.
29 Developing Objectives and Strategies
Establishing long range objectives and specifying the strategies and actions to achieve these objectives.
25 Inspecting Equipment, Structures, or Material
Inspecting or diagnosing equipment, structures, or materials to identify the causes of errors or other problems or defects.
21 Repairing and Maintaining Electrical Equipment
Fixing, servicing, adjusting, regulating, calibrating, fine-tuning, or testing machines, devices, and equipment that operate primarily on the basis of electrical or electronic (not mechanical) principles.
21 Selling or Influencing Others
Convincing others to buy merchandise/goods, or otherwise changing their minds or actions.
21 Monitoring and Controlling Resources
Monitoring and controlling resources and overseeing the spending of money.
17 Performing Administrative Activities
Approving requests, handling paperwork, and performing day-to-day administrative tasks.
17 Establishing and Maintaining Relationships
Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others.
17 Scheduling Work and Activities
Scheduling events, programs, activities, as well as the work of others.
17 Teaching Others
Identifying educational needs, developing formal training programs or classes, and teaching or instructing others.
17 Coordinating Work and Activities of Others
Coordinating members of a work group to accomplish tasks.
13 Coaching and Developing Others
Identifying developmental needs of others and coaching or otherwise helping others to improve their knowledge or skills.
13 Performing General Physical Activities
Performing physical activities that require moving one's whole body, such as in climbing, lifting, balancing, walking, stooping, where the activities often also require considerable use of the arms and legs, such as in the physical handling of materials.
8 Resolving Conflict or Negotiating with Others
Handling complaints, arbitrating disputes, and resolving grievances, or otherwise negotiating with others.
8 Guiding, Directing and Motivating Subordinates
Providing guidance and direction to subordinates, including setting performance standards and monitoring subordinates.
8 Repairing and Maintaining Mechanical Equipment
Fixing, servicing, aligning, setting up, adjusting, and testing machines, devices, moving parts, and equipment that operate primarily on the basis of mechanical (not electronic) principles.
8 Developing and Building Teams
Encouraging and building mutual trust, respect, and cooperation among team members.
4 Performing For or Working With Public
Performing for people or dealing directly with the public, including serving persons in restaurants and stores, and receiving clients or guests.
Work context elements are ranked by frequency (F), importance (I), responsibility (R), amount of contact (C), how serious (S), objective vs. subjective (O), automation (A), extent of frustration (E), responsible for health and safety (H), likelihood of injury (L), degree of injury (D) .
68 (I) Importance of Being Exact or Accurate
How important is being very exact or highly accurate in performing this job?
65 (F) Sitting
How much time in a usual work period does the worker spend: Sitting?
60 (F) Indoors
How frequently does this job require the worker to work: Indoors
60 (F) Outdoors
How frequently does this job require the worker to work: Outdoors
60 (I) Importance of Being Aware of New Events
How important is being constantly aware of either frequently changing events (e.g. security guard watching for shoplifters) or infrequent events (e.g. radar operator watching for tornadoes) to performing this job?
55 (F) Standing
How much time in a usual work period does the worker spend: Standing?
55 (F) Using Hands on Objects, Tools, Controls
How much time in a usual work period does the worker spend: Using hands to handle, control, or feel objects, tools or controls?
48 (I) Importance of Being Sure All Is Done
How important is it to be sure that all the details of this job are performed and everything is done completely?
35 (F) Extremely Bright or Inadequate Lighting
How often during a usual work period is the worker exposed to the following conditions: Extremely bright or inadequate lighting conditions?
30 (S) Consequence of Error
How serious would the result usually be if the worker made a mistake that was not readily correctable?
30 (F) Very Hot
How often during a usual work period is the worker exposed to the following conditions: Very hot (above 90 F) or very cold (under 32 F) temperatures?
28 (I) Importance of Repeating Same Tasks
How important is repeating the same physical activities (e.g., key entry) or mental activities (e.g., checking entries in a ledger) over and over, without stopping, to performing this job?
25 (F) High Places
How often does this job require the worker to be exposed to high places? High Places (e.g., heights above 8 feet on ladders, poles, scaffolding, catwalks, etc.)
20 (I) Pace Determined by Speed of Equipment
How important is it to this job that the pace is determined by the speed of equipment or machinery? (This does not refer to keeping busy at all times on this job.)
20 (O) Objective or Subjective Information
How objective or subjective is the information communicated in this job?
17 (E) Frustrating Circumstances
To what extent do frustrating circumstances ("road blocks" to work that are beyond the worker's control) hinder the accomplishment of this job?
15 (F) Contaminants
How often during a usual work period is the worker exposed to the following conditions: Contaminants (pollutants, gases, dust, odors, etc.)?
15 (F) Common Protective or Safety Attire
How often does the worker wear: Common protective or safety attire, such as safety shoes, glasses, gloves, hearing protection, hard-hat, or personal flotation device?
15 (F) Walking or Running
How much time in a usual work period does the worker spend: Walking or running?
14 (L) High Places
What is the likelihood that the worker would be injured as a result of being exposed to high places while performing this job? High Places (e.g., heights above 8 feet on ladders, poles, scaffolding, catwalks, etc.)
13 (A) Degree of Automation
Indicate the level of automation of this job.
12 (D) High Places
If injury, due to exposure to high places, were to occur while performing this job, how serious would be the likely outcome? High Places (e.g., heights above 8 feet on ladders, poles, scaffolding, catwalks, etc.)
10 (F) Bending or Twisting the Body
How much time in a usual work period does the worker spend: Bending or twisting the body?
8 (I) Take a Position Opposed to Others
How important are interactions requiring the worker to: Take a position opposed to coworkers or others?
8 (I) Coordinate or Lead Others
How important are interactions requiring the worker to: Coordinate or lead others in accomplishing work activities (not supervision)?
7 (C) Job-Required Social Interaction
How much does this job require the worker to be in contact (face-to-face, by telephone, or otherwise) with others in order to perform it?
6 (H) Responsible for Health and Safety of Others
How responsible is the worker for others' health and safety on this job?
6 (R) Responsibility for Outcomes and Results
How responsible is the worker for work outcomes and results of other workers?
5 (F) Kneeling, Crouching or Crawling
How much time in a usual work period does the worker spend: Kneeling, stooping, crouching or crawling?
5 (F) Specialized Protective or Safety Attire
How often does the worker wear: Specialized protective or safety attire, such as breathing apparatus, safety harness, full protection suit, or radiation protection?
5 (F) Making Repetitive Motions
How much time in a usual work period does the worker spend: Making repetitive motions?
5 (F) Sounds or Noise Levels Are Distracting
How often during a usual work period is the worker exposed to the following conditions: Sounds and noise levels that are distracting and uncomfortable?
Interest elements are ranked by occupational interest.
Investigative occupations frequently involve working with ideas, and require an extensive amount of thinking. These occupations can involve searching for facts and figuring out problems mentally.
Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others.
Conventional occupations frequently involve following set procedures and routines. These occupations can include working with data and details more than with ideas. Usually there is a clear line of authority to follow.
Artistic occupations frequently involve working with forms, designs and patterns. They often require self-expression and the work can be done without following a clear set of rules.
Enterprising occupations frequently involve starting up and carrying out projects. These occupations can involve leading people and making many decisions. Sometimes they require risk taking and often deal with business.
Social occupations frequently involve working with, communicating with, and teaching people. These occupations often involve helping or providing service to others.
Work values elements are ranked by extent.
82 Independence-Mean Extent
Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employs to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.
81 Achievement-Mean Extent
Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement.
64 Working Conditions-Mean Extent
Occupations that satisfy this work value offer job security and good working conditions. Corresponding needs are Activity, Compensation, Independence, Security, Variety and Working Conditions.
43 Recognition-Mean Extent
Occupations that satisfy this work value offer advancement, potential for leadership, and are often considered prestigious. Corresponding needs are Advancement, Authority, Recognition and Social Status.
41 Relationships-Mean Extent
Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to provide service to others and work with co-workers in a friendly non-competitive environment. Corresponding needs are Co-workers, Moral Values and Social Service.
35 Support-Mean Extent
Occupations that satisfy this work value offer supportive management that stands behind employees. Corresponding needs are Company Policies, Supervision: Human Relations and Supervision: Technical.
Workers on this job plan their work with little supervision
Workers on this job do their work alone
88 Moral Values
Workers on this job are never pressured to do things that go against their sense of right and wrong
88 Ability Utilization
Workers on this job make use of their individual abilities
Workers on this job make decisions on their own
Workers on this job try out their own ideas
Workers on this job get a feeling of accomplishment
69 Working Conditions
Workers on this job have good working conditions
Workers on this job have steady employment
59 Social Status
Workers on this job are looked up to by others in their company and their community
Workers on this job are paid well in comparison with other workers
59 Company Policies and Practices
Workers on this job are treated fairly by the company
Workers on this job receive recognition for the work they do
Workers on this job are busy all the time
Workers on this job have something different to do every day
Workers on this job have opportunities for advancement
34 Supervision, Human Relations
Workers on this job have supervisors who back up their workers with management
Workers on this job have co-workers who are easy to get along with
Workers on this job give directions and instructions to others
13 Supervision, Technical
Workers on this job have supervisors who train their workers well
6 Social Service
Workers on this job have work where they do things for other people
|DOT91 (Dictionary of Occupational Titles):||
|AIM97 (Apprenticeship Information Management):||
|CEN90 (1990 Census Occupations):||
069 Physicists and Astronomers
|CIP90 (Classification of Instructional Programs):||
400703 Earth and Planetary Sciences
|GOE93 (Guide for Occupational Exploration):||
020101 Physical Sciences: Theoretical Research
|MOC97 (Military Occupational Codes):||
2153 Naval Observatory Officer
|OES98 (Occupational Employment Statistics):||
24102 Physicists and Astronomers
|OPM97 (Office of Personnel Management Occupations):||
1330 Astronomy and Space Science
|SOC98 (Standard Occupational Classification):||