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DEFINITION: Cover surfaces of items, such as books, furniture, and signs, with metal leaf, using hand tools.
1. Picks up leaf with brush or felt-edged tool and lays leaf over sizing.
2. Smoothes leaf over surface and removes excess, using brush.
3. Presses sheets or ribbons of leaf onto sizing by hand.
4. Brushes sizing (thin glue) on sections of items to be covered with leaf, according to design.
5. Rubs leaf with polished burnishing agent or cotton pad to polish leaf or simulate worn metal finish.
6. Transfers leaf from supply book onto pallet.
Knowledge elements are ranked by importance.
55 Fine Arts
Knowledge of theory and techniques required to produce, compose, and perform works of music, dance, visual arts, drama, and sculpture
50 Production and Processing
Knowledge of inputs, outputs, raw materials, waste, quality control, costs, and techniques for maximizing the manufacture and distribution of goods
Knowledge of design techniques, principles, tools and instruments involved in the production and use of precision technical plans, blueprints, drawings, and models
Knowledge of machines and tools, including their designs, uses, benefits, repair, and maintenance
20 Customer and Personal Service
Knowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services including needs assessment techniques, quality service standards, alternative delivery systems, and customer satisfaction evaluation techniques
15 Building and Construction
Knowledge of materials, methods, and the appropriate tools to construct objects, structures, and buildings
Knowledge of numbers, their operations, and interrelationships including arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, and their applications
Knowledge of the composition, structure, and properties of substances and of the chemical processes and transformations that they undergo. This includes uses of chemicals and their interactions, danger signs, production techniques, and disposal methods
Knowledge and prediction of physical principles, laws, and applications including air, water, material dynamics, light, atomic principles, heat, electric theory, earth formations, and meteorological and related natural phenomena
Knowledge of principles and methods for moving people or goods by air, rail, sea, or road, including their relative costs, advantages, and limitations
5 Personnel and Human Resources
Knowledge of policies and practices involved in personnel/human resource functions. This includes recruitment, selection, training, and promotion regulations and procedures; compensation and benefits packages; labor relations and negotiation strategies; and personnel information systems
5 Law, Government and Jurisprudence
Knowledge of laws, legal codes, court procedures, precedents, government regulations, executive orders, agency rules, and the democratic political process
5 Communications and Media
Knowledge of media production, communication, and dissemination techniques and methods including alternative ways to inform and entertain via written, oral, and visual media
Skills elements are ranked by importance.
65 Equipment Selection
Determining the kind of tools and equipment needed to do a job
55 Product Inspection
Inspecting and evaluating the quality of products
30 Information Organization
Finding ways to structure or classify multiple pieces of information
30 Operation and Control
Controlling operations of equipment or systems
Using scientific methods to solve problems
25 Information Gathering
Knowing how to find information and identifying essential information
25 Judgment and Decision Making
Weighing the relative costs and benefits of a potential action
20 Reading Comprehension
Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents
20 Operations Analysis
Analyzing needs and product requirements to create a design
20 Identification of Key Causes
Identifying the things that must be changed to achieve a goal
Using mathematics to solve problems
15 Management of Material Resources
Obtaining and seeing to the appropriate use of equipment, facilities, and materials needed to do certain work
15 Active Listening
Listening to what other people are saying and asking questions as appropriate
Adjusting actions in relation to others' actions
Developing an image of how a system should work under ideal conditions
15 Problem Identification
Identifying the nature of problems
15 Solution Appraisal
Observing and evaluating the outcomes of a problem solution to identify lessons learned or redirect efforts
15 Equipment Maintenance
Performing routine maintenance and determining when and what kind of maintenance is needed
10 Idea Evaluation
Evaluating the likely success of an idea in relation to the demands of the situation
Assessing how well one is doing when learning or doing something
10 Active Learning
Working with new material or information to grasp its implications
10 Identifying Downstream Consequences
Determining the long-term outcomes of a change in operations
Talking to others to effectively convey information
10 Learning Strategies
Using multiple approaches when learning or teaching new things
10 Idea Generation
Generating a number of different approaches to problems
Communicating effectively with others in writing as indicated by the needs of the audience
10 Technology Design
Generating or adapting equipment and technology to serve user needs
Installing equipment, machines, wiring, or programs to meet specifications
10 Time Management
Managing one's own time and the time of others
Reorganizing information to get a better approach to problems or tasks
5 Service Orientation
Actively looking for ways to help people
5 Critical Thinking
Using logic and analysis to identify the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches
5 Management of Financial Resources
Determining how money will be spent to get the work done, and accounting for these expenditures
Persuading others to approach things differently
Teaching others how to do something
5 Systems Evaluation
Looking at many indicators of system performance, taking into account their accuracy
5 Systems Perception
Determining when important changes have occurred in a system or are likely to occur
5 Operation Monitoring
Watching gauges, dials, or other indicators to make sure a machine is working properly
Repairing machines or systems using the needed tools
Determining what is causing an operating error and deciding what to do about it
Bringing others together and trying to reconcile differences .
Abilities elements are ranked by importance.
80 Arm-Hand Steadiness
The ability to keep the hand and arm steady while making an arm movement or while holding the arm and hand in one position
70 Manual Dexterity
The ability to quickly make coordinated movements of one hand, a hand together with its arm, or two hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble objects
60 Near Vision
The ability to see details of objects at a close range (within a few feet of the observer)
The ability to imagine how something will look after it is moved around or when its parts are moved or rearranged
55 Finger Dexterity
The ability to make precisely coordinated movements of the fingers of one or both hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble very small objects
55 Wrist-Finger Speed
The ability to make fast, simple, repeated movements of the fingers, hands, and wrists
50 Extent Flexibility
The ability to bend, stretch, twist, or reach out with the body, arms, and/or legs
45 Multilimb Coordination
The ability to coordinate movements of two or more limbs together (for example, two arms, two legs, or one leg and one arm) while sitting, standing, or lying down. It does not involve performing the activities while the body is in motion
45 Information Ordering
The ability to correctly follow a given rule or set of rules in order to arrange things or actions in a certain order. The things or actions can include numbers, letters, words, pictures, procedures, sentences, and mathematical or logical operations.
45 Visual Color Discrimination
The ability to match or detect differences between colors, including shades of color and brightness
45 Dynamic Strength
The ability to exert muscle force repeatedly or continuously over time. This involves muscular endurance and resistance to muscle fatigue
The ability to remember information such as words, numbers, pictures, and procedures
35 Control Precision
The ability to quickly and repeatedly make precise adjustments in moving the controls of a machine or vehicle to exact positions
35 Trunk Strength
The ability to use one's abdominal and lower back muscles to support part of the body repeatedly or continuously over time without "giving out" or fatiguing
30 Selective Attention
The ability to concentrate and not be distracted while performing a task over a period of time
30 Speed of Limb Movement
The ability to quickly move the arms or legs
The ability to come up with unusual or clever ideas about a given topic or situation, or to develop creative ways to solve a problem
25 Dynamic Flexibility
The ability to quickly and repeatedly bend, stretch, twist, or reach out with the body, arms, and/or legs
25 Problem Sensitivity
The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing there is a problem.
25 Static Strength
The ability to exert maximum muscle force to lift, push, pull, or carry objects
25 Explosive Strength
The ability to use short bursts of muscle force to propel oneself (as in jumping or sprinting), or to throw an object
20 Far Vision
The ability to see details at a distance
20 Written Comprehension
The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing
The ability to exert one's self physically over long periods of time without getting winded or out of breath
20 Gross Body Coordination
The ability to coordinate the movement of the arms, legs, and torso together in activities where the whole body is in motion
20 Deductive Reasoning
The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to come up with logical answers. It involves deciding if an answer makes sense.
20 Category Flexibility
The ability to produce many rules so that each rule tells how to group (or combine) a set of things in a different way.
20 Oral Comprehension
The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences
20 Number Facility
The ability to add, subtract, multiply, or divide quickly and correctly
20 Flexibility of Closure
The ability to identify or detect a known pattern (a figure, object, word, or sound) that is hidden in other distracting material
20 Perceptual Speed
The ability to quickly and accurately compare letters, numbers, objects, pictures, or patterns. The things to be compared may be presented at the same time or one after the other. This ability also includes comparing a presented object with a remembered object
15 Spatial Orientation
The ability to know one's location in relation to the environment, or to know where other objects are in relation to one's self
15 Oral Expression
The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand
15 Depth Perception
The ability to judge which of several objects is closer or farther away from the observer, or to judge the distance between an object and the observer
15 Reaction Time
The ability to quickly respond (with the hand, finger, or foot) to one signal (sound, light, picture, etc.) when it appears
10 Speech Recognition
The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person
10 Gross Body Equilibrium
The ability to keep or regain one's body balance or stay upright when in an unstable position
10 Speed of Closure
The ability to quickly make sense of information that seems to be without meaning or organization. It involves quickly combining and organizing different pieces of information into a meaningful pattern
10 Mathematical Reasoning
The ability to understand and organize a problem and then to select a mathematical method or formula to solve the problem
10 Time Sharing
The ability to efficiently shift back and forth between two or more activities or sources of information (such as speech, sounds, touch, or other sources)
10 Fluency of Ideas
The ability to come up with a number of ideas about a given topic. It concerns the number of ideas produced and not the quality, correctness, or creativity of the ideas.
10 Speech Clarity
The ability to speak clearly so that it is understandable to a listener
5 Response Orientation
The ability to choose quickly and correctly between two or more movements in response to two or more signals (lights, sounds, pictures, etc.). It includes the speed with which the correct response is started with the hand, foot, or other body parts
5 Hearing Sensitivity
The ability to detect or tell the difference between sounds that vary over broad ranges of pitch and loudness
5 Written Expression
The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand
Work activities elements are ranked by importance.
90 Handling and Moving Objects
Using one's own hands and arms in handling, installing, forming, positioning, and moving materials, or in manipulating things, including the use of keyboards.
60 Implementing Ideas or Programs
Conducting or carrying out work procedures and activities in accord with one's own ideas or information provided through directions/instructions for purposes of installing, modifying, preparing, delivering, constructing, integrating, finishing, or completing programs, systems, structures, or products.
40 Getting Information Needed to Do the Job
Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.
35 Monitor Processes, Material, or Surroundings
Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, often to detect problems or to find out when things are finished.
30 Estimating Needed Characteristics
Estimating the Characteristics of Materials, Products, Events, or Information: Estimating sizes, distances, and quantities, or determining time, costs, resources, or materials needed to perform a work activity.
30 Performing General Physical Activities
Performing physical activities that require moving one's whole body, such as in climbing, lifting, balancing, walking, stooping, where the activities often also require considerable use of the arms and legs, such as in the physical handling of materials.
25 Inspecting Equipment, Structures, or Material
Inspecting or diagnosing equipment, structures, or materials to identify the causes of errors or other problems or defects.
25 Judging Qualities of Things, Services, or People
Making judgments about or assessing the value, importance, or quality of things or people.
25 Evaluating Information Against Standards
Evaluating information against a set of standards and verifying that it is correct.
20 Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events
Identifying information received by making estimates or categorizations, recognizing differences or similarities, or sensing changes in circumstances or events.
20 Updating and Using Job-Relevant Knowledge
Keeping up-to-date technically and knowing one's own jobs' and related jobs' functions.
20 Drafting and Specifying Technical Devices
Providing documentation, detailed instructions, drawings, or specifications to inform others about how devices, parts, equipment, or structures are to be fabricated, constructed, assembled, modified, maintained, or used.
15 Thinking Creatively
Originating, inventing, designing, or creating new applications, ideas, relationships, systems, or products, including artistic contributions.
15 Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing
Developing plans to accomplish work, and prioritizing and organizing one's own work.
10 Repairing and Maintaining Mechanical Equipment
Fixing, servicing, aligning, setting up, adjusting, and testing machines, devices, moving parts, and equipment that operate primarily on the basis of mechanical (not electronic) principles.
10 Making Decisions and Solving Problems
Combining, evaluating, and reasoning with information and data to make decisions and solve problems. These processes involve making decisions about the relative importance of information and choosing the best solution.
10 Analyzing Data or Information
Identifying underlying principles, reasons, or facts by breaking down information or data into separate parts.
10 Controlling Machines and Processes
Using either control mechanisms or direct physical activity to operate machines or processes (not including computers or vehicles).
5 Establishing and Maintaining Relationships
Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others.
5 Communicating With Other Workers
Providing information to supervisors, fellow workers, and subordinates. This information can be exchanged face-to-face, in writing, or via telephone/electronic transfer.
5 Documenting or Recording Information
Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in either written form or by electronic/magnetic recording.
5 Processing Information
Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, verifying, or processing information or data.
Work context elements are ranked by frequency (F), importance (I), responsibility (R), amount of contact (C), how serious (S), objective vs. subjective (O), automation (A), extent of frustration (E), responsible for health and safety (H), likelihood of injury (L), degree of injury (D) .
100 (F) Indoors
How frequently does this job require the worker to work: Indoors
95 (F) Using Hands on Objects, Tools, Controls
How much time in a usual work period does the worker spend: Using hands to handle, control, or feel objects, tools or controls?
75 (F) Sitting
How much time in a usual work period does the worker spend: Sitting?
60 (F) Making Repetitive Motions
How much time in a usual work period does the worker spend: Making repetitive motions?
56 (I) Importance of Being Sure All Is Done
How important is it to be sure that all the details of this job are performed and everything is done completely?
56 (I) Importance of Being Exact or Accurate
How important is being very exact or highly accurate in performing this job?
45 (F) Contaminants
How often during a usual work period is the worker exposed to the following conditions: Contaminants (pollutants, gases, dust, odors, etc.)?
40 (F) Standing
How much time in a usual work period does the worker spend: Standing?
36 (I) Importance of Repeating Same Tasks
How important is repeating the same physical activities (e.g., key entry) or mental activities (e.g., checking entries in a ledger) over and over, without stopping, to performing this job?
30 (F) Walking or Running
How much time in a usual work period does the worker spend: Walking or running?
30 (F) Kneeling, Crouching or Crawling
How much time in a usual work period does the worker spend: Kneeling, stooping, crouching or crawling?
30 (F) Bending or Twisting the Body
How much time in a usual work period does the worker spend: Bending or twisting the body?
30 (F) Hazardous Conditions
How often does this job require the worker to be exposed to hazardous conditions? Hazardous Conditions (e.g., high voltage electricity, combustibles, explosives, chemicals; do not include hazardous equipment or situations)
30 (F) Common Protective or Safety Attire
How often does the worker wear: Common protective or safety attire, such as safety shoes, glasses, gloves, hearing protection, hard-hat, or personal flotation device?
30 (S) Consequence of Error
How serious would the result usually be if the worker made a mistake that was not readily correctable?
25 (F) Hazardous Situations
How often does this job require the worker to be exposed to harardous situations? Hazardous Situations involving likely cuts, bites, stings, or minor burns
20 (F) Sounds or Noise Levels Are Distracting
How often during a usual work period is the worker exposed to the following conditions: Sounds and noise levels that are distracting and uncomfortable?
20 (E) Frustrating Circumstances
To what extent do frustrating circumstances ("road blocks" to work that are beyond the worker's control) hinder the accomplishment of this job?
20 (I) Provide a Service to Others
How important are interactions requiring the worker to: Provide a service to others (e.g., customers)?
16 (I) Coordinate or Lead Others
How important are interactions requiring the worker to: Coordinate or lead others in accomplishing work activities (not supervision)?
16 (I) Persuade Someone to a Course of Action
How important are interactions requiring the worker to: Persuade someone to a course of action (informally) or influence others to buy something (to sell)?
15 (F) Specialized Protective or Safety Attire
How often does the worker wear: Specialized protective or safety attire, such as breathing apparatus, safety harness, full protection suit, or radiation protection?
15 (F) Climbing Ladders, Scaffolds, Poles, etc.
How much time in a usual work period does the worker spend: Climbing ladders, scaffolds, poles, etc?
15 (F) Very Hot
How often during a usual work period is the worker exposed to the following conditions: Very hot (above 90 F) or very cold (under 32 F) temperatures?
15 (F) Extremely Bright or Inadequate Lighting
How often during a usual work period is the worker exposed to the following conditions: Extremely bright or inadequate lighting conditions?
15 (F) Frequency in Conflict Situations
How frequently do the job requirements place the worker in conflict situations?
14 (L) Hazardous Conditions
What is the likelihood that the worker would be injured as a result of being exposed to hazardous conditions while performing this job? Hazardous Conditions (e.g., high voltage electricity, combustibles, explosives, chemicals; do not include hazardous equipment or situations)
13 (O) Objective or Subjective Information
How objective or subjective is the information communicated in this job?
12 (I) Importance of Being Aware of New Events
How important is being constantly aware of either frequently changing events (e.g. security guard watching for shoplifters) or infrequent events (e.g. radar operator watching for tornadoes) to performing this job?
12 (I) Deal With External Customers
How important are interactions requiring the worker to: Deal with external customers (e.g., retail sales) or the public in general (e.g., police work)?
12 (D) Hazardous Conditions
If injury, due to exposure to hazardous conditions, were to occur while performing this job, how serious would be the likely outcome? Hazardous Conditions (e.g., high voltage electricity, combustibles, explosives, chemicals; do not include hazardous equipment or situations)
10 (C) Job-Required Social Interaction
How much does this job require the worker to be in contact (face-to-face, by telephone, or otherwise) with others in order to perform it?
10 (F) Hazardous Equipment
How often does this job require the worker to be exposed to harardous equipment? Hazardous Equipment (e.g., saws, machinery/mechanical parts include exposure to vehicular traffic, but not driving a vehicle)
10 (F) Keeping or Regaining Balance
How much time in a usual work period does the worker spend: Keeping or regaining balance?
10 (F) Cramped Work Space, Awkward Positions
How often during a usual work period is the worker exposed to the following conditions: Cramped work space that requires getting into awkward positions?
9 (L) Hazardous Situations
What is the likelihood that the worker would be injured as a result of being exposed to hazardous situations while performing this job? Hazardous Situations involving likely cuts, bites, stings, or minor burns
9 (H) Responsible for Health and Safety of Others
How responsible is the worker for others' health and safety on this job?
9 (R) Responsibility for Outcomes and Results
How responsible is the worker for work outcomes and results of other workers?
8 (I) Supervise, Coach, Train Others
How important are interactions requiring the worker to: Supervise, coach, train, or develop other employees?
8 (I) Take a Position Opposed to Others
How important are interactions requiring the worker to: Take a position opposed to coworkers or others?
8 (D) Hazardous Situations
If injury, due to exposure to hazardous situations, were to occur while performing this job, how serious would be the likely outcome? Hazardous Situations involving likely cuts, bites, stings, or minor burns
7 (A) Degree of Automation
Indicate the level of automation of this job.
5 (F) Outdoors
How frequently does this job require the worker to work: Outdoors
5 (F) High Places
How often does this job require the worker to be exposed to high places? High Places (e.g., heights above 8 feet on ladders, poles, scaffolding, catwalks, etc.)
5 (F) Diseases or Infections
How often does this job require the worker to be exposed to diseases/infection? Diseases/Infections (e.g., patient care, some laboratory work, sanitation control, etc.)
5 (F) Deal With Unpleasant or Angry People
How frequently does the worker have to deal with unpleasant, angry, or discourteous individuals as part of the job requirements?
5 (F) Deal With Physically Aggressive People
How frequently does this job require the worker to deal with physical aggression of violent individuals?
5 (F) Radiation
How often does this job require the worker to be exposed to radiation?
4 (D) Hazardous Equipment
If injury, due to exposure to hazardous equipment, were to occur while performing this job, how serious would be the likely outcome? Hazardous Equipment (e.g., saws, machinery/mechanical parts include exposure to vehicular traffic, but not driving a vehicle)
3 (L) Hazardous Equipment
What is the likelihood that the worker would be injured as a result of being exposed to hazardous equipment while performing this job? Hazardous Equipment (e.g., saws, machinery/mechanical parts include exposure to vehicular traffic, but not driving a vehicle)
Interest elements are ranked by occupational interest.
Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others.
Artistic occupations frequently involve working with forms, designs and patterns. They often require self-expression and the work can be done without following a clear set of rules.
Conventional occupations frequently involve following set procedures and routines. These occupations can include working with data and details more than with ideas. Usually there is a clear line of authority to follow.
Enterprising occupations frequently involve starting up and carrying out projects. These occupations can involve leading people and making many decisions. Sometimes they require risk taking and often deal with business.
Investigative occupations frequently involve working with ideas, and require an extensive amount of thinking. These occupations can involve searching for facts and figuring out problems mentally.
Social occupations frequently involve working with, communicating with, and teaching people. These occupations often involve helping or providing service to others.
Work values elements are ranked by extent.
53 Working Conditions-Mean Extent
Occupations that satisfy this work value offer job security and good working conditions. Corresponding needs are Activity, Compensation, Independence, Security, Variety and Working Conditions.
47 Support-Mean Extent
Occupations that satisfy this work value offer supportive management that stands behind employees. Corresponding needs are Company Policies, Supervision: Human Relations and Supervision: Technical.
46 Relationships-Mean Extent
Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to provide service to others and work with co-workers in a friendly non-competitive environment. Corresponding needs are Co-workers, Moral Values and Social Service.
39 Achievement-Mean Extent
Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement.
38 Independence-Mean Extent
Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employs to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.
28 Recognition-Mean Extent
Occupations that satisfy this work value offer advancement, potential for leadership, and are often considered prestigious. Corresponding needs are Advancement, Authority, Recognition and Social Status.
91 Moral Values
Workers on this job are never pressured to do things that go against their sense of right and wrong
Workers on this job do their work alone
59 Working Conditions
Workers on this job have good working conditions
Workers on this job plan their work with little supervision
50 Supervision, Technical
Workers on this job have supervisors who train their workers well
Workers on this job are paid well in comparison with other workers
47 Company Policies and Practices
Workers on this job are treated fairly by the company
Workers on this job get a feeling of accomplishment
Workers on this job have steady employment
44 Supervision, Human Relations
Workers on this job have supervisors who back up their workers with management
Workers on this job are busy all the time
Workers on this job receive recognition for the work they do
38 Social Status
Workers on this job are looked up to by others in their company and their community
Workers on this job have co-workers who are easy to get along with
Workers on this job have something different to do every day
Workers on this job have opportunities for advancement
31 Ability Utilization
Workers on this job make use of their individual abilities
Workers on this job try out their own ideas
Workers on this job make decisions on their own
13 Social Service
Workers on this job have work where they do things for other people
Workers on this job give directions and instructions to others
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|CEN90 (1990 Census Occupations):||
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|OES98 (Occupational Employment Statistics):||
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|OPM97 (Office of Personnel Management Occupations):||
|SOC98 (Standard Occupational Classification):||