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DEFINITION: Sing songs on stage, radio, television, or motion pictures.
1. Sings before audience or recipient of message as soloist, or in group, as member of vocal ensemble.
2. Sings a cappella or with musical accompaniment.
3. Memorizes musical selections and routines, or sings following printed text, musical notation, or customer instructions.
4. Interprets or modifies music, applying knowledge of harmony, melody, rhythm, and voice production, to individualize presentation and maintain audience interest.
5. Observes choral leader or prompter for cues or directions in vocal presentation.
6. Practices songs and routines to maintain and improve vocal skills.
Knowledge elements are ranked by importance.
92 Fine Arts
Knowledge of theory and techniques required to produce, compose, and perform works of music, dance, visual arts, drama, and sculpture
38 English Language
Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar
29 Communications and Media
Knowledge of media production, communication, and dissemination techniques and methods including alternative ways to inform and entertain via written, oral, and visual media
13 Customer and Personal Service
Knowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services including needs assessment techniques, quality service standards, alternative delivery systems, and customer satisfaction evaluation techniques
Knowledge of numbers, their operations, and interrelationships including arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, and their applications
Knowledge and prediction of physical principles, laws, and applications including air, water, material dynamics, light, atomic principles, heat, electric theory, earth formations, and meteorological and related natural phenomena
8 Foreign Language
Knowledge of the structure and content of a foreign (non-English) language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition and grammar, and pronunciation
Knowledge of transmission, broadcasting, switching, control, and operation of telecommunications systems
8 Education and Training
Knowledge of instructional methods and training techniques including curriculum design principles, learning theory, group and individual teaching techniques, design of individual development plans, and test design principles
4 Philosophy and Theology
Knowledge of different philosophical systems and religions, including their basic principles, values, ethics, ways of thinking, customs, and practices, and their impact on human culture
Knowledge of plant and animal living tissue, cells, organisms, and entities, including their functions, interdependencies, and interactions with each other and the environment
Skills elements are ranked by importance.
Adjusting actions in relation to others' actions
Assessing how well one is doing when learning or doing something
58 Active Listening
Listening to what other people are saying and asking questions as appropriate
58 Active Learning
Working with new material or information to grasp its implications
Talking to others to effectively convey information
50 Reading Comprehension
Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents
46 Social Perceptiveness
Being aware of others' reactions and understanding why they react the way they do
33 Idea Generation
Generating a number of different approaches to problems
33 Product Inspection
Inspecting and evaluating the quality of products
33 Information Gathering
Knowing how to find information and identifying essential information
29 Solution Appraisal
Observing and evaluating the outcomes of a problem solution to identify lessons learned or redirect efforts
29 Learning Strategies
Using multiple approaches when learning or teaching new things
Developing an image of how a system should work under ideal conditions
25 Systems Perception
Determining when important changes have occurred in a system or are likely to occur
25 Idea Evaluation
Evaluating the likely success of an idea in relation to the demands of the situation
25 Implementation Planning
Developing approaches for implementing an idea
21 Critical Thinking
Using logic and analysis to identify the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches
21 Information Organization
Finding ways to structure or classify multiple pieces of information
17 Identification of Key Causes
Identifying the things that must be changed to achieve a goal
17 Equipment Selection
Determining the kind of tools and equipment needed to do a job
17 Judgment and Decision Making
Weighing the relative costs and benefits of a potential action
17 Problem Identification
Identifying the nature of problems
13 Technology Design
Generating or adapting equipment and technology to serve user needs
Reorganizing information to get a better approach to problems or tasks
13 Time Management
Managing one's own time and the time of others
13 Operations Analysis
Analyzing needs and product requirements to create a design
Using mathematics to solve problems
Communicating effectively with others in writing as indicated by the needs of the audience
8 Identifying Downstream Consequences
Determining the long-term outcomes of a change in operations
Teaching others how to do something
4 Operation Monitoring
Watching gauges, dials, or other indicators to make sure a machine is working properly
4 Management of Material Resources
Obtaining and seeing to the appropriate use of equipment, facilities, and materials needed to do certain work
Determining what is causing an operating error and deciding what to do about it
4 Management of Personnel Resources
Motivating, developing, and directing people as they work, identifying the best people for the job
4 Operation and Control
Controlling operations of equipment or systems
Conducting tests to determine whether equipment, software, or procedures are operating as expected
Persuading others to approach things differently
Bringing others together and trying to reconcile differences
4 Systems Evaluation
Looking at many indicators of system performance, taking into account their accuracy .
Abilities elements are ranked by importance.
85 Hearing Sensitivity
The ability to detect or tell the difference between sounds that vary over broad ranges of pitch and loudness
The ability to remember information such as words, numbers, pictures, and procedures
60 Oral Comprehension
The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences
60 Written Comprehension
The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing
55 Oral Expression
The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand
The ability to come up with unusual or clever ideas about a given topic or situation, or to develop creative ways to solve a problem
55 Speech Clarity
The ability to speak clearly so that it is understandable to a listener
55 Auditory Attention
The ability to focus on a single source of auditory (hearing) information in the presence of other distracting sounds
50 Selective Attention
The ability to concentrate and not be distracted while performing a task over a period of time
40 Sound Localization
The ability to tell the direction from which a sound originated
40 Near Vision
The ability to see details of objects at a close range (within a few feet of the observer)
30 Speed of Closure
The ability to quickly make sense of information that seems to be without meaning or organization. It involves quickly combining and organizing different pieces of information into a meaningful pattern
30 Trunk Strength
The ability to use one's abdominal and lower back muscles to support part of the body repeatedly or continuously over time without "giving out" or fatiguing
25 Time Sharing
The ability to efficiently shift back and forth between two or more activities or sources of information (such as speech, sounds, touch, or other sources)
25 Speech Recognition
The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person
25 Written Expression
The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand
20 Information Ordering
The ability to correctly follow a given rule or set of rules in order to arrange things or actions in a certain order. The things or actions can include numbers, letters, words, pictures, procedures, sentences, and mathematical or logical operations.
20 Gross Body Coordination
The ability to coordinate the movement of the arms, legs, and torso together in activities where the whole body is in motion
20 Flexibility of Closure
The ability to identify or detect a known pattern (a figure, object, word, or sound) that is hidden in other distracting material
15 Gross Body Equilibrium
The ability to keep or regain one's body balance or stay upright when in an unstable position
15 Deductive Reasoning
The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to come up with logical answers. It involves deciding if an answer makes sense.
15 Inductive Reasoning
The ability to combine separate pieces of information, or specific answers to problems, to form general rules or conclusions. It includes coming up with a logical explanation for why a series of seemingly unrelated events occur together.
15 Fluency of Ideas
The ability to come up with a number of ideas about a given topic. It concerns the number of ideas produced and not the quality, correctness, or creativity of the ideas.
15 Reaction Time
The ability to quickly respond (with the hand, finger, or foot) to one signal (sound, light, picture, etc.) when it appears
15 Rate Control
The ability to time the adjustments of a movement or equipment control in anticipation of changes in the speed and/or direction of a continuously moving object or scene
15 Glare Sensitivity
The ability to see objects in the presence of glare or bright lighting
15 Extent Flexibility
The ability to bend, stretch, twist, or reach out with the body, arms, and/or legs
10 Number Facility
The ability to add, subtract, multiply, or divide quickly and correctly
10 Perceptual Speed
The ability to quickly and accurately compare letters, numbers, objects, pictures, or patterns. The things to be compared may be presented at the same time or one after the other. This ability also includes comparing a presented object with a remembered object
The ability to exert one's self physically over long periods of time without getting winded or out of breath
10 Response Orientation
The ability to choose quickly and correctly between two or more movements in response to two or more signals (lights, sounds, pictures, etc.). It includes the speed with which the correct response is started with the hand, foot, or other body parts
10 Night Vision
The ability to see under low light conditions
10 Problem Sensitivity
The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing there is a problem.
5 Mathematical Reasoning
The ability to understand and organize a problem and then to select a mathematical method or formula to solve the problem
5 Category Flexibility
The ability to produce many rules so that each rule tells how to group (or combine) a set of things in a different way.
5 Depth Perception
The ability to judge which of several objects is closer or farther away from the observer, or to judge the distance between an object and the observer
5 Arm-Hand Steadiness
The ability to keep the hand and arm steady while making an arm movement or while holding the arm and hand in one position
5 Manual Dexterity
The ability to quickly make coordinated movements of one hand, a hand together with its arm, or two hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble objects
5 Peripheral Vision
The ability to see objects or movement of objects to one's side when the eyes are focused forward
5 Multilimb Coordination
The ability to coordinate movements of two or more limbs together (for example, two arms, two legs, or one leg and one arm) while sitting, standing, or lying down. It does not involve performing the activities while the body is in motion
5 Wrist-Finger Speed
The ability to make fast, simple, repeated movements of the fingers, hands, and wrists
5 Visual Color Discrimination
The ability to match or detect differences between colors, including shades of color and brightness
5 Far Vision
The ability to see details at a distance
5 Control Precision
The ability to quickly and repeatedly make precise adjustments in moving the controls of a machine or vehicle to exact positions
Work activities elements are ranked by importance.
88 Performing For or Working With Public
Performing for people or dealing directly with the public, including serving persons in restaurants and stores, and receiving clients or guests.
79 Thinking Creatively
Originating, inventing, designing, or creating new applications, ideas, relationships, systems, or products, including artistic contributions.
54 Communicating With Persons Outside Organization
Communicating with persons outside the organization, representing the organization to customers, the public, government, and other external sources. This information can be exchanged face-to-face, in writing, or via telephone/electronic transfer.
42 Communicating With Other Workers
Providing information to supervisors, fellow workers, and subordinates. This information can be exchanged face-to-face, in writing, or via telephone/electronic transfer.
38 Getting Information Needed to Do the Job
Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.
38 Establishing and Maintaining Relationships
Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others.
33 Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing
Developing plans to accomplish work, and prioritizing and organizing one's own work.
29 Making Decisions and Solving Problems
Combining, evaluating, and reasoning with information and data to make decisions and solve problems. These processes involve making decisions about the relative importance of information and choosing the best solution.
29 Interpreting Meaning of Information to Others
Translating or explaining what information means and how it can be understood or used to support responses or feedback to others.
29 Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events
Identifying information received by making estimates or categorizations, recognizing differences or similarities, or sensing changes in circumstances or events.
25 Updating and Using Job-Relevant Knowledge
Keeping up-to-date technically and knowing one's own jobs' and related jobs' functions.
25 Implementing Ideas or Programs
Conducting or carrying out work procedures and activities in accord with one's own ideas or information provided through directions/instructions for purposes of installing, modifying, preparing, delivering, constructing, integrating, finishing, or completing programs, systems, structures, or products.
21 Processing Information
Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, verifying, or processing information or data.
21 Monitor Processes, Material, or Surroundings
Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, often to detect problems or to find out when things are finished.
21 Analyzing Data or Information
Identifying underlying principles, reasons, or facts by breaking down information or data into separate parts.
17 Scheduling Work and Activities
Scheduling events, programs, activities, as well as the work of others.
17 Performing General Physical Activities
Performing physical activities that require moving one's whole body, such as in climbing, lifting, balancing, walking, stooping, where the activities often also require considerable use of the arms and legs, such as in the physical handling of materials.
13 Developing Objectives and Strategies
Establishing long range objectives and specifying the strategies and actions to achieve these objectives.
13 Judging Qualities of Things, Services, or People
Making judgments about or assessing the value, importance, or quality of things or people.
13 Handling and Moving Objects
Using one's own hands and arms in handling, installing, forming, positioning, and moving materials, or in manipulating things, including the use of keyboards.
8 Performing Administrative Activities
Approving requests, handling paperwork, and performing day-to-day administrative tasks.
8 Providing Consultation and Advice to Others
Providing consultation and expert advice to management or other groups on technical, systems-related, or process related topics.
8 Evaluating Information Against Standards
Evaluating information against a set of standards and verifying that it is correct.
8 Coordinating Work and Activities of Others
Coordinating members of a work group to accomplish tasks.
8 Inspecting Equipment, Structures, or Material
Inspecting or diagnosing equipment, structures, or materials to identify the causes of errors or other problems or defects.
4 Documenting or Recording Information
Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in either written form or by electronic/magnetic recording.
4 Repairing and Maintaining Electrical Equipment
Fixing, servicing, adjusting, regulating, calibrating, fine-tuning, or testing machines, devices, and equipment that operate primarily on the basis of electrical or electronic (not mechanical) principles.
4 Coaching and Developing Others
Identifying developmental needs of others and coaching or otherwise helping others to improve their knowledge or skills.
4 Teaching Others
Identifying educational needs, developing formal training programs or classes, and teaching or instructing others.
4 Developing and Building Teams
Encouraging and building mutual trust, respect, and cooperation among team members.
4 Monitoring and Controlling Resources
Monitoring and controlling resources and overseeing the spending of money.
Work context elements are ranked by frequency (F), importance (I), responsibility (R), amount of contact (C), how serious (S), objective vs. subjective (O), automation (A), extent of frustration (E), responsible for health and safety (H), likelihood of injury (L), degree of injury (D) .
80 (F) Indoors
How frequently does this job require the worker to work: Indoors
71 (O) Objective or Subjective Information
How objective or subjective is the information communicated in this job?
70 (F) Standing
How much time in a usual work period does the worker spend: Standing?
55 (F) Sitting
How much time in a usual work period does the worker spend: Sitting?
47 (C) Job-Required Social Interaction
How much does this job require the worker to be in contact (face-to-face, by telephone, or otherwise) with others in order to perform it?
44 (I) Importance of Being Exact or Accurate
How important is being very exact or highly accurate in performing this job?
40 (I) Importance of Being Aware of New Events
How important is being constantly aware of either frequently changing events (e.g. security guard watching for shoplifters) or infrequent events (e.g. radar operator watching for tornadoes) to performing this job?
40 (I) Importance of Repeating Same Tasks
How important is repeating the same physical activities (e.g., key entry) or mental activities (e.g., checking entries in a ledger) over and over, without stopping, to performing this job?
36 (I) Deal With External Customers
How important are interactions requiring the worker to: Deal with external customers (e.g., retail sales) or the public in general (e.g., police work)?
32 (I) Importance of Being Sure All Is Done
How important is it to be sure that all the details of this job are performed and everything is done completely?
30 (F) Special Uniform
How often does the worker wear: A special uniform, such as that of a commercial pilot, nurse, police officer, or military personnel?
30 (F) Outdoors
How frequently does this job require the worker to work: Outdoors
24 (I) Provide a Service to Others
How important are interactions requiring the worker to: Provide a service to others (e.g., customers)?
20 (F) Bending or Twisting the Body
How much time in a usual work period does the worker spend: Bending or twisting the body?
20 (F) Using Hands on Objects, Tools, Controls
How much time in a usual work period does the worker spend: Using hands to handle, control, or feel objects, tools or controls?
20 (F) Walking or Running
How much time in a usual work period does the worker spend: Walking or running?
15 (F) Extremely Bright or Inadequate Lighting
How often during a usual work period is the worker exposed to the following conditions: Extremely bright or inadequate lighting conditions?
15 (F) Kneeling, Crouching or Crawling
How much time in a usual work period does the worker spend: Kneeling, stooping, crouching or crawling?
15 (F) Making Repetitive Motions
How much time in a usual work period does the worker spend: Making repetitive motions?
13 (S) Consequence of Error
How serious would the result usually be if the worker made a mistake that was not readily correctable?
10 (F) Hazardous Situations
How often does this job require the worker to be exposed to harardous situations? Hazardous Situations involving likely cuts, bites, stings, or minor burns
10 (F) Keeping or Regaining Balance
How much time in a usual work period does the worker spend: Keeping or regaining balance?
10 (E) Frustrating Circumstances
To what extent do frustrating circumstances ("road blocks" to work that are beyond the worker's control) hinder the accomplishment of this job?
8 (I) Persuade Someone to a Course of Action
How important are interactions requiring the worker to: Persuade someone to a course of action (informally) or influence others to buy something (to sell)?
6 (L) High Places
What is the likelihood that the worker would be injured as a result of being exposed to high places while performing this job? High Places (e.g., heights above 8 feet on ladders, poles, scaffolding, catwalks, etc.)
6 (L) Hazardous Situations
What is the likelihood that the worker would be injured as a result of being exposed to hazardous situations while performing this job? Hazardous Situations involving likely cuts, bites, stings, or minor burns
5 (F) Very Hot
How often during a usual work period is the worker exposed to the following conditions: Very hot (above 90 F) or very cold (under 32 F) temperatures?
5 (F) Deal With Unpleasant or Angry People
How frequently does the worker have to deal with unpleasant, angry, or discourteous individuals as part of the job requirements?
5 (F) Frequency in Conflict Situations
How frequently do the job requirements place the worker in conflict situations?
5 (F) High Places
How often does this job require the worker to be exposed to high places? High Places (e.g., heights above 8 feet on ladders, poles, scaffolding, catwalks, etc.)
5 (F) Climbing Ladders, Scaffolds, Poles, etc.
How much time in a usual work period does the worker spend: Climbing ladders, scaffolds, poles, etc?
4 (D) Hazardous Situations
If injury, due to exposure to hazardous situations, were to occur while performing this job, how serious would be the likely outcome? Hazardous Situations involving likely cuts, bites, stings, or minor burns
4 (D) High Places
If injury, due to exposure to high places, were to occur while performing this job, how serious would be the likely outcome? High Places (e.g., heights above 8 feet on ladders, poles, scaffolding, catwalks, etc.)
4 (I) Take a Position Opposed to Others
How important are interactions requiring the worker to: Take a position opposed to coworkers or others?
4 (I) Pace Determined by Speed of Equipment
How important is it to this job that the pace is determined by the speed of equipment or machinery? (This does not refer to keeping busy at all times on this job.)
3 (H) Responsible for Health and Safety of Others
How responsible is the worker for others' health and safety on this job?
3 (R) Responsibility for Outcomes and Results
How responsible is the worker for work outcomes and results of other workers?
Interest elements are ranked by occupational interest.
Artistic occupations frequently involve working with forms, designs and patterns. They often require self-expression and the work can be done without following a clear set of rules.
Enterprising occupations frequently involve starting up and carrying out projects. These occupations can involve leading people and making many decisions. Sometimes they require risk taking and often deal with business.
Social occupations frequently involve working with, communicating with, and teaching people. These occupations often involve helping or providing service to others.
Investigative occupations frequently involve working with ideas, and require an extensive amount of thinking. These occupations can involve searching for facts and figuring out problems mentally.
Conventional occupations frequently involve following set procedures and routines. These occupations can include working with data and details more than with ideas. Usually there is a clear line of authority to follow.
Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others.
Work values elements are ranked by extent.
91 Achievement-Mean Extent
Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement.
64 Independence-Mean Extent
Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employs to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.
53 Relationships-Mean Extent
Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to provide service to others and work with co-workers in a friendly non-competitive environment. Corresponding needs are Co-workers, Moral Values and Social Service.
46 Working Conditions-Mean Extent
Occupations that satisfy this work value offer job security and good working conditions. Corresponding needs are Activity, Compensation, Independence, Security, Variety and Working Conditions.
42 Recognition-Mean Extent
Occupations that satisfy this work value offer advancement, potential for leadership, and are often considered prestigious. Corresponding needs are Advancement, Authority, Recognition and Social Status.
22 Support-Mean Extent
Occupations that satisfy this work value offer supportive management that stands behind employees. Corresponding needs are Company Policies, Supervision: Human Relations and Supervision: Technical.
94 Ability Utilization
Workers on this job make use of their individual abilities
Workers on this job get a feeling of accomplishment
84 Moral Values
Workers on this job are never pressured to do things that go against their sense of right and wrong
Workers on this job receive recognition for the work they do
Workers on this job plan their work with little supervision
Workers on this job try out their own ideas
66 Working Conditions
Workers on this job have good working conditions
Workers on this job have something different to do every day
53 Social Status
Workers on this job are looked up to by others in their company and their community
Workers on this job do their work alone
Workers on this job make decisions on their own
Workers on this job are paid well in comparison with other workers
41 Social Service
Workers on this job have work where they do things for other people
Workers on this job have co-workers who are easy to get along with
34 Company Policies and Practices
Workers on this job are treated fairly by the company
Workers on this job have opportunities for advancement
Workers on this job are busy all the time
Workers on this job have steady employment
19 Supervision, Human Relations
Workers on this job have supervisors who back up their workers with management
Workers on this job give directions and instructions to others
13 Supervision, Technical
Workers on this job have supervisors who train their workers well
|DOT91 (Dictionary of Occupational Titles):||
230647010 Singing Messenger
|AIM97 (Apprenticeship Information Management):||
|CEN90 (1990 Census Occupations):||
186 Musicians and Composers
|CIP90 (Classification of Instructional Programs):||
500908 Music - Voice and Choral/Opera Performance
500903 Music - General Performance
500901 Music, General
|GOE93 (Guide for Occupational Exploration):||
010403 Performing Arts:Music: Vocal Performing
|MOC97 (Military Occupational Codes):||
3N131R Regional Band
02S Special Band Member
3N171R Regional Band
3N151R Regional Band
3825 Vocalist/Auxiliary Percussionist
|OES98 (Occupational Employment Statistics):||
34047 Music Directors, Singers, Composers, and Related Workers
|OPM97 (Office of Personnel Management Occupations):||
1051 Music Specialist
|SOC98 (Standard Occupational Classification):||
27-2042 Musicians and Singers