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Dictionary Of Occupational Titles
Master Titles and Definitions

    Master Titles and Definitions
      Master definitions describe work duties that are common or potentially common to a
      number of jobs. Jobs in which the common duties are an essential part refer to the
      Master definition title as a device to save space and to avoid repetition of the
      common duties. Clues to classifications of jobs utilizing Master definitions are
      APPRENTICE (any industry) 
      A worker who learns, according to written or oral contractual agreement, a
      recognized skilled craft or trade requiring one or more years of on-the-job training
      through job experience supplemented by related instruction, prior to being
      considered a qualified skilled worker. High school or vocational school education is
      often a prerequisite for entry into an apprenticeship program. Provisions of
      apprenticeship agreement regularly include length of apprenticeship; a progressive
      scale of wages; work processes to be taught; and amount of instruction in subjects
      related to the craft or trade, such as characteristics of materials used, physics,
      mathematics, estimating, and blueprint reading. Apprenticeability of a particular
      craft or trade is best evidenced by its acceptability for registration as a trade by
      a State Apprenticeship agency or the Federal Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training.
      Generally, where employees are represented by a union, apprenticeship programs come
      under the guidance of joint apprenticeship committees composed of representatives of
      the employers or the employer association and representatives of the employees.
      These committees may determine need for apprentices in a locality and establish
      minimum apprenticeship standards of education, experience, and training. In
      instances where committees do not exist, apprenticeship agreement is made between
      apprentice and employer, or an employer group. The title APPRENTICE is often loosely
      used as a synonym for beginner, HELPER (any industry) Master Title, or TRAINEE (any
      industry). This practice is technically incorrect and leads to confusion in
      determining what is meant. Typical classifications for apprentices are BLACKSMITH
      CLEANER I (any industry) 
      Maintains premises of commercial, institutional, or industrial establishments,
      office buildings, hotels and motels, apartment houses, retirement homes, nursing
      homes, hospitals, schools, or similar establishments in clean and orderly condition,
      performing the following duties: Cleans rooms, hallways, lobbies, lounges, rest
      rooms, corridors, elevators, stairways, and locker rooms and other work areas.
      Sweeps, scrubs, waxes, and polishes floors, using brooms and mops and powered
      scrubbing and waxing machines. Cleans rugs, carpets, upholstered furniture, and
      draperies, using vacuum cleaner. Dusts furniture and equipment. Polishes metalwork,
      such as fixtures and fittings. Washes walls, ceiling, and woodwork. Washes windows,
      door panels, and sills. Empties wastebaskets, and empties and cleans ashtrays.
      Transports trash and waste to disposal area. Replenishes bathroom supplies. Replaces
      light bulbs. Classifications are made according to type of establishment in which
      work is performed. Typical classifications are CLEANER, COMMERCIAL OR INSTITUTIONAL
      (any industry); CLEANER, HOSPITAL (medical ser.); CLEANER, HOUSEKEEPING (any
      industry); CLEANER, INDUSTRIAL (any industry); HOUSECLEANER (hotel & rest.).
      DESIGN ENGINEER, FACILITIES (profess. & kin.) 
      Applies engineering principles to design, modify, or develop facilities, testing,
      machines, equipment, or processes used in processing or manufacturing products:
      Analyzes product or equipment specifications and performance requirements to
      determine designs which can be produced by existing manufacturing or processing
      facilities and methods. Analyzes engineering proposals, process requirements, and
      related technical data pertaining to industrial machinery and equipment design.
      Determines feasibility of designing new plant equipment or modifying existing
      facilities considering costs, available space, time limitations, company planning,
      and other technical and economic factors. Provides technical information concerning
      manufacturing or processing techniques, materials, properties, and process
      advantages and limitations which affect long range plant and product engineering
      planning. Compiles and analyzes operational, test, and research data to establish
      performance standards for newly designed or modified equipment. Studies engineering
      and technical publications to keep abreast of technological changes and developments
      in industry. Classifications are made according to type of process or
      specialization. May use computer-assisted engineering software and equipment.
      DESIGN ENGINEER, PRODUCTS (profess. & kin.) 
      Conducts analytical studies on engineering proposals to develop design for products,
      such as engines, equipment, machines, associated and subsystems components, and
      aerospace structures, utilizing and applying engineering principles, research data,
      and proposed product specifications. Analyzes data to determine feasibility of
      product proposal. Confers with research personnel to clarify or resolve problems and
      develops design. Prepares or directs preparation of product or system layout and
      detailed drawings and schematics. Directs and coordinates manufacturing or building
      of prototype product or system. Plans and develops experimental test programs.
      Analyzes test data and reports to determine if design meets functional and
      performance specifications. Confers with research and other engineering personnel
      and prepares design modifications as required. Evaluates engineering test results
      for possible application to development of systems or other uses. Design engineering
      personnel are classified according to discipline. May use computer-assisted
      engineering software and equipment.
      DRAFTER (profess. & kin.) 
      Prepares working plans and detail drawings from rough or detailed sketches and notes
      for engineering or manufacturing purposes according to dimensional specifications:
      Calculates and lays out dimensions, angles, curvature of parts, materials to be
      used, relationship of one part to another, and relationship of various parts to
      entire structure or project, utilizing knowledge of engineering practices,
      mathematics, building materials, manufacturing technology, and related physical
      sciences. Creates preliminary or final sketch of proposed drawing, using standard
      drafting techniques and devices, such as drawing board, T-square, protractor, and
      drafting machine, or using computer-assisted design/drafting equipment. Modifies
      drawings as directed by engineer or architect. Classifications are made according to
      type of drafting, such as electrical, electronic, aeronautical, civil, mechanical,
      or architectural.
      HELPER (any industry) 
      A worker who assists another worker, usually of a higher level of competence or
      expertness, by performing a variety of duties, such as furnishing another worker
      with materials, tools, and supplies; cleaning work area, machines, and equipment;
      feeding or off bearing machines; holding materials or tools; and performing other
      routine duties. A HELPER (any industry) Master Title may learn a trade but does so
      without an agreement with employer that such is the purpose of their relationship.
      Consequently, the title HELPER (any industry) is sometimes used as synonym for
      APPRENTICE (any industry) Master Title, a practice that is incorrect technically. A
      worker whose duties are limited or restricted to one type of activity, such as
      moving materials from one department to another, feeding machines, removing products
      from conveyors or machines, or cleaning machines or work areas is not technically a
      HELPER (any industry) and is classified according to duties performed as MATERIAL
      HANDLER (any industry); MACHINE CLEANER (any industry); CLEANER, INDUSTRIAL (any
      industry). A worker who performs a variety of duties to assist another worker is a
      HELPER (any industry) technically and is classified according to worker assisted as
      BRICKLAYER HELPER (construction); DRY-CLEANER HELPER (laundry & rel.).
      RESEARCH ENGINEER (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: development engineer
      Conducts research in a field or specialization of an engineering discipline to
      discover facts, or performs research directed toward investigation, evaluation, and
      application of known engineering theories and principles. Plans and conducts, or
      directs engineering personnel performing, complex engineering experiments to test,
      prove, or modify theoretical propositions on basis of research findings and
      experiences of others researching in related technological areas. Evaluates findings
      to develop new concepts, products, equipment, or processes; or to develop
      applications of findings to new uses. Prepares technical reports for use by
      engineering or management personnel for long- and short-range planning, or for use
      by sales engineering personnel in sales or technical services activities.
      Classifications are made according to discipline. May use computer-assisted
      engineering software and equipment.
      SALES ENGINEER  (profess. & kin.) alternate titles: marketing engineer
      Sells chemical, mechanical, electromechanical, electrical, electronic equipment and
      supplies or services requiring knowledge of engineering and cost effectiveness:
      Calls on management representatives, such as engineers, architects, or other
      professional and technical personnel at commercial, industrial, and other
      establishments in attempt to convince prospective client of desirability and
      practicability of products or services offered. Reviews blueprints, plans, and other
      customer documents to develop and prepare cost estimates or projected increases in
      production from client's use of proposed equipment or services. Draws up or proposes
      changes in equipment, processes, or use of materials or services which would result
      in cost reduction or improvement in operations. Provides technical services to
      clients relating to use, operation, and maintenance of equipment. May draw up sales
      or service contract for products or services. May provide technical training to
      employees of client. Usually specializes in sale of one or more closely related
      group of products or types of services, such as electrical or electronic equipment
      or systems, industrial machinery, processing equipment or systems, air-conditioning
      and refrigeration equipment, electric power equipment, or chemical goods.
      SALES REPRESENTATIVE (retail trade; wholesale tr.) alternate titles: sales agent;
      sales associate
      Sells products to business and industrial establishments or individual for
      manufacturer or distributor at sales office, store, showroom, or customer's place of
      business, utilizing knowledge of product sold: Compiles lists of prospective
      customers for use as sales leads, based on information from newspapers, business
      directories, and other sources. Travels throughout assigned territory to call on
      regular and prospective customers to solicit orders or talks with customers on sales
      floor or by phone. Displays or demonstrates product, using samples or catalog, and
      emphasizes salable features. Quotes prices and credit terms and prepares sales
      contracts for orders obtained. Estimates date of delivery to customer, based on
      knowledge of own firm's production and delivery schedules. Prepares reports of
      business transactions and keeps expense accounts. Classifications are made according
      to products sold as SALES REPRESENTATIVE, FOOD PRODUCTS (wholesale tr.); SALES
      SALESPERSON (retail trade; wholesale tr.) 
      Sells merchandise to individuals in store or showroom, utilizing knowledge of
      products sold: Greets customer on sales floor and ascertains make, type, and quality
      of merchandise desired. Displays merchandise, suggests selections that meet
      customer's needs, and emphasizes selling points of article, such as quality and
      utility. Prepares sales slip or sales contract. Receives payment or obtains credit
      authorization. Places new merchandise on display. May wrap merchandise for customer.
      May take inventory of stock. May requisition merchandise from stockroom. May visit
      customer's home by appointment to sell merchandise on shop-at-home basis.
      Classifications are made according to products sold as SALESPERSON, AUTOMOBILE
      ACCESSORIES (retail trade; wholesale tr.); SALESPERSON, BOOKS (retail trade);
      Tends one or more sewing machines that automatically join, reinforce, or decorate
      material or fabricated articles: Places spool of thread on spindle and draws thread
      through guides, tensions, and eye of needle. Inserts bobbin into shuttle and draws
      thread through slot in shuttle wall, or draws thread through guides and looper eyes.
      May pull boxes of flatfolded material into feeding position or place roll of
      material on brackets at entry end of machine. May thread material through feed
      rollers and guides. Depresses pedal or moves lever to raise presser foot; positions
      article parts or material under needle, using edges, seams, or markings on fabric as
      guides, and lowers presser foot. Presses pedal or button to start machine that stops
      as material runs out or thread breaks. May cut material, using scissors, when
      specified length of cloth has been sewn. Observes sewing operation to detect
      defective stitching, breaks in thread, or machine malfunction. Rethreads machine,
      replaces defective or broken needles, using pliers, or notifies SEWING-MACHINE
      REPAIRER (any industry) of machine malfunction. May remove rolls or trucks of
      material from discharge end of machine. May select supplies, such as fasteners or
      thread, according to specifications or color of fabric. May oil machine. May cut
      excess thread, using scissors or blade attachment on machine. May tend machine
      equipped with blade attachment that automatically trims selvages. May tend
      multiple-needle machine that joins two or more layers of cloth to reinforce them.
      Classifications are usually made according to function of machine as
      (any industry).
      Operates various sewing machines to join parts of fabricated articles or garments:
      Places spool of thread on spindle of machine and draws thread through machine
      guides, tensions, and eye of needle. Inserts bobbin into shuttle and draws thread
      through slot in shuttle wall, or draws thread through guide and looper eye. Presses
      knee lever, depresses pedal, or moves hand lever to raise presser foot or spread
      feed cups. Positions parts to be joined under presser foot and needle and lowers
      presser foot. Starts, stops, and controls speed of machine, using pedal or knee
      lever. Guides parts under needle, using fingers and hands, and following edges,
      seams, guides on machine bed, or markings on part. Observes stitching to detect
      defects and notifies supervisor or SEWING-MACHINE REPAIRER (any industry) when
      defects are caused by machine malfunction. May select sewing supplies, such as
      binding, braid, cord, piping, tape, thread, or welt, according to specifications or
      color of material. May cut excess material or thread, using blade attached to
      machine or scissors. May oil machine, change needles, or secure modifying
      attachments to machine. Classifications are usually made according to type of
      machine, garment part sewn, product fabricated, or modifying attachment on machine.
      SUPERVISOR (any industry) alternate titles: boss; chief; leader; manager; overseer;
      principal; section chief; section leader
      Supervises and coordinates activities of workers engaged in one or more occupations:
      Studies production schedules and estimates worker-hour requirements for completion
      of job assignment. Interprets company policies to workers and enforces safety
      regulations. Interprets specifications, blueprints, and job orders to workers, and
      assigns duties. Establishes or adjusts work procedures to meet production schedules,
      using knowledge of capacities of machines and equipment. Recommends measures to
      improve production methods, equipment performance, and quality of product, and
      suggests changes in working conditions and use of equipment to increase efficiency
      of shop, department, or work crew. Analyzes and resolves work problems, or assists
      workers in solving work problems. Initiates or suggests plans to motivate workers to
      achieve work goals. Recommends or initiates personnel actions, such as promotions,
      transfers, discharges, and disciplinary measures. May train new workers. Maintains
      time and production records. May estimate, requisition, and inspect materials. May
      confer with other SUPERVISORS (any industry) to coordinate activities of individual
      departments. May confer with workers' representatives to resolve grievances. May set
      up machines and equipment. When supervising workers engaged chiefly in one
      occupation or craft, is required to be adept in the activities of the workers
      supervised. When supervising workers engaged in several occupations, is required to
      possess general knowledge of the activities involved. Classifications are made
      according to process involved, craft of workers supervised, product manufactured, or
      according to industry in which work occurs. Classifications are made according to
      workers supervised.
      SUPERVISOR (clerical) alternate titles: section chief; section head
      Supervises and coordinates activities of clerical workers: Determines work
      procedures, prepares work schedules, and expedites workflow. Issues written and oral
      instructions. Assigns duties and examines work for exactness, neatness, and
      conformance to policies and procedures. Studies and standardizes procedures to
      improve efficiency of subordinates. Prepares composite reports from individual
      reports of subordinates. Adjusts errors and complaints. May perform or assist
      subordinates in performing duties. May keep time and personnel records, and oversee
      preparation of payrolls. May hire, train, and discharge workers. Classifications are
      made according to type of work or functions of unit supervised as SUPERVISOR,
      COMPUTER OPERATIONS (clerical) 213.132-010; SUPERVISOR, TELEPHONE CLERKS (tel. &
      tel.) 239.132-010; TYPING SECTION CHIEF (clerical) 203.137-014.
      TEST ENGINEER (profess. & kin.) 
      Conducts environmental, operational, or performance tests on electrical, mechanical,
      electromechanical, general industrial, or experimental products, such as aircraft,
      automotive equipment, industrial machinery and equipment, controls, and systems:
      Designs, and directs engineering and technical personnel in fabrication of testing
      and test-control apparatus and equipment. Directs and coordinates engineering
      activities concerned with development, procurement, installation, and calibration of
      instruments, equipment, and control devices required to test, telemeter, record, and
      reduce test data. Determines conditions under which tests are to be conducted and
      sequences and phases of test operations. Directs and exercises control over
      operational, functional, and performance phases of tests. Confers with scientific,
      engineering, and technical personnel to resolve testing problems, such as product or
      system malfunctions, incomplete test data, and data interpretation, considering such
      factors as conditions under which test was conducted and instrumentation,
      procedures, and phase of test used to obtain and record data. Analyzes and
      interprets test data and prepares technical reports for use by engineering and
      management personnel. Testing engineers are classified by field of engineering. May
      use computer-assisted engineering software and equipment.

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