CODE: 39008Buy ONET/DOT: Download or CD-ROM
TITLE: Radio Operators
DEFINITION: Receive and transmit communications using radiotelegraph or radiotelephone equipment in accordance with government regulations. May repair equipment.
1. Communicates by radio with test pilot, engineering personnel, and others during flight testing to relay information.
2. Communicates with receiving operator to give and receive instruction for transmission.
3. Turns controls or throws switches to activate power, adjust voice volume and modulation, and set transmitter on specified frequency.
4. Repairs transmitting equipment, using electronic testing equipment, hand tools, and power tools, to maintain communication system in operative condition.
5. Determines and obtains bearings of source from which signal originated, using direction finding procedures and equipment.
6. Monitors emergency frequency for distress calls and dispatches emergency equipment.
7. Operates sound-recording equipment to record signals and preserve broadcast for analysis by intelligence personnel.
8. Coordinates radio searches for overdue or lost airplanes.
9. Examines and operates new equipment prior to installation in airport radio stations.
10. Establishes and maintains standards of operation by periodic inspections of equipment and routine tests.
11. Reviews company and Federal Aviation Authority regulations regarding radio communications and reports violations.
12. Maintains station log of messages transmitted and received for activities such as flight testing and fire locations.
Knowledge elements are ranked by importance.
Knowledge of transmission, broadcasting, switching, control, and operation of telecommunications systems
83 Computers and Electronics
Knowledge of electric circuit boards, processors, chips, and computer hardware and software, including applications and programming
44 Communications and Media
Knowledge of media production, communication, and dissemination techniques and methods including alternative ways to inform and entertain via written, oral, and visual media
42 English Language
Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar
33 Law, Government and Jurisprudence
Knowledge of laws, legal codes, court procedures, precedents, government regulations, executive orders, agency rules, and the democratic political process
Knowledge of numbers, their operations, and interrelationships including arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, and their applications
31 Engineering and Technology
Knowledge of equipment, tools, mechanical devices, and their uses to produce motion, light, power, technology, and other applications
Knowledge of machines and tools, including their designs, uses, benefits, repair, and maintenance
Knowledge and prediction of physical principles, laws, and applications including air, water, material dynamics, light, atomic principles, heat, electric theory, earth formations, and meteorological and related natural phenomena
Knowledge of various methods for describing the location and distribution of land, sea, and air masses including their physical locations, relationships, and characteristics
23 Public Safety and Security
Knowledge of weaponry, public safety, and security operations, rules, regulations, precautions, prevention, and the protection of people, data, and property
Knowledge of administrative and clerical procedures and systems such as word processing systems, filing and records management systems, stenography and transcription, forms design principles, and other office procedures and terminology
Knowledge of principles and methods for moving people or goods by air, rail, sea, or road, including their relative costs, advantages, and limitations
13 Administration and Management
Knowledge of principles and processes involved in business and organizational planning, coordination, and execution. This includes strategic planning, resource allocation, manpower modeling, leadership techniques, and production methods
Knowledge of design techniques, principles, tools and instruments involved in the production and use of precision technical plans, blueprints, drawings, and models
6 Foreign Language
Knowledge of the structure and content of a foreign (non-English) language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition and grammar, and pronunciation
4 Customer and Personal Service
Knowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services including needs assessment techniques, quality service standards, alternative delivery systems, and customer satisfaction evaluation techniques
Knowledge of human behavior and performance, mental processes, psychological research methods, and the assessment and treatment of behavioral and affective disorders
Skills elements are ranked by importance.
85 Operation Monitoring
Watching gauges, dials, or other indicators to make sure a machine is working properly
83 Active Listening
Listening to what other people are saying and asking questions as appropriate
77 Operation and Control
Controlling operations of equipment or systems
Talking to others to effectively convey information
65 Information Gathering
Knowing how to find information and identifying essential information
58 Reading Comprehension
Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents
Adjusting actions in relation to others' actions
54 Problem Identification
Identifying the nature of problems
Conducting tests to determine whether equipment, software, or procedures are operating as expected
Determining what is causing an operating error and deciding what to do about it
46 Equipment Selection
Determining the kind of tools and equipment needed to do a job
44 Product Inspection
Inspecting and evaluating the quality of products
Communicating effectively with others in writing as indicated by the needs of the audience
42 Judgment and Decision Making
Weighing the relative costs and benefits of a potential action
42 Critical Thinking
Using logic and analysis to identify the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches
38 Identification of Key Causes
Identifying the things that must be changed to achieve a goal
38 Implementation Planning
Developing approaches for implementing an idea
Using mathematics to solve problems
35 Information Organization
Finding ways to structure or classify multiple pieces of information
35 Systems Perception
Determining when important changes have occurred in a system or are likely to occur
33 Active Learning
Working with new material or information to grasp its implications
Assessing how well one is doing when learning or doing something
31 Technology Design
Generating or adapting equipment and technology to serve user needs
31 Equipment Maintenance
Performing routine maintenance and determining when and what kind of maintenance is needed
Repairing machines or systems using the needed tools
31 Solution Appraisal
Observing and evaluating the outcomes of a problem solution to identify lessons learned or redirect efforts
29 Idea Evaluation
Evaluating the likely success of an idea in relation to the demands of the situation
29 Idea Generation
Generating a number of different approaches to problems
Teaching others how to do something
25 Social Perceptiveness
Being aware of others' reactions and understanding why they react the way they do
Developing an image of how a system should work under ideal conditions
23 Systems Evaluation
Looking at many indicators of system performance, taking into account their accuracy
Reorganizing information to get a better approach to problems or tasks
23 Operations Analysis
Analyzing needs and product requirements to create a design
19 Learning Strategies
Using multiple approaches when learning or teaching new things
Using scientific methods to solve problems
Installing equipment, machines, wiring, or programs to meet specifications
15 Identifying Downstream Consequences
Determining the long-term outcomes of a change in operations
15 Time Management
Managing one's own time and the time of others
15 Service Orientation
Actively looking for ways to help people
13 Management of Material Resources
Obtaining and seeing to the appropriate use of equipment, facilities, and materials needed to do certain work
10 Management of Personnel Resources
Motivating, developing, and directing people as they work, identifying the best people for the job
Bringing others together and trying to reconcile differences
Writing computer programs for various purposes
Persuading others to approach things differently
2 Management of Financial Resources
Determining how money will be spent to get the work done, and accounting for these expenditures .
Abilities elements are ranked by importance.
85 Oral Comprehension
The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences
80 Oral Expression
The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand
70 Control Precision
The ability to quickly and repeatedly make precise adjustments in moving the controls of a machine or vehicle to exact positions
70 Auditory Attention
The ability to focus on a single source of auditory (hearing) information in the presence of other distracting sounds
70 Speech Clarity
The ability to speak clearly so that it is understandable to a listener
65 Written Comprehension
The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing
60 Problem Sensitivity
The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing there is a problem.
60 Flexibility of Closure
The ability to identify or detect a known pattern (a figure, object, word, or sound) that is hidden in other distracting material
55 Speech Recognition
The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person
55 Deductive Reasoning
The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to come up with logical answers. It involves deciding if an answer makes sense.
55 Selective Attention
The ability to concentrate and not be distracted while performing a task over a period of time
55 Time Sharing
The ability to efficiently shift back and forth between two or more activities or sources of information (such as speech, sounds, touch, or other sources)
55 Reaction Time
The ability to quickly respond (with the hand, finger, or foot) to one signal (sound, light, picture, etc.) when it appears
50 Information Ordering
The ability to correctly follow a given rule or set of rules in order to arrange things or actions in a certain order. The things or actions can include numbers, letters, words, pictures, procedures, sentences, and mathematical or logical operations.
50 Response Orientation
The ability to choose quickly and correctly between two or more movements in response to two or more signals (lights, sounds, pictures, etc.). It includes the speed with which the correct response is started with the hand, foot, or other body parts
50 Hearing Sensitivity
The ability to detect or tell the difference between sounds that vary over broad ranges of pitch and loudness
45 Sound Localization
The ability to tell the direction from which a sound originated
45 Speed of Closure
The ability to quickly make sense of information that seems to be without meaning or organization. It involves quickly combining and organizing different pieces of information into a meaningful pattern
The ability to remember information such as words, numbers, pictures, and procedures
40 Trunk Strength
The ability to use one's abdominal and lower back muscles to support part of the body repeatedly or continuously over time without "giving out" or fatiguing
40 Written Expression
The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand
40 Inductive Reasoning
The ability to combine separate pieces of information, or specific answers to problems, to form general rules or conclusions. It includes coming up with a logical explanation for why a series of seemingly unrelated events occur together.
40 Finger Dexterity
The ability to make precisely coordinated movements of the fingers of one or both hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble very small objects
40 Near Vision
The ability to see details of objects at a close range (within a few feet of the observer)
35 Number Facility
The ability to add, subtract, multiply, or divide quickly and correctly
35 Manual Dexterity
The ability to quickly make coordinated movements of one hand, a hand together with its arm, or two hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble objects
30 Extent Flexibility
The ability to bend, stretch, twist, or reach out with the body, arms, and/or legs
30 Arm-Hand Steadiness
The ability to keep the hand and arm steady while making an arm movement or while holding the arm and hand in one position
30 Category Flexibility
The ability to produce many rules so that each rule tells how to group (or combine) a set of things in a different way.
30 Wrist-Finger Speed
The ability to make fast, simple, repeated movements of the fingers, hands, and wrists
25 Fluency of Ideas
The ability to come up with a number of ideas about a given topic. It concerns the number of ideas produced and not the quality, correctness, or creativity of the ideas.
20 Perceptual Speed
The ability to quickly and accurately compare letters, numbers, objects, pictures, or patterns. The things to be compared may be presented at the same time or one after the other. This ability also includes comparing a presented object with a remembered object
20 Spatial Orientation
The ability to know one's location in relation to the environment, or to know where other objects are in relation to one's self
The ability to come up with unusual or clever ideas about a given topic or situation, or to develop creative ways to solve a problem
15 Mathematical Reasoning
The ability to understand and organize a problem and then to select a mathematical method or formula to solve the problem
15 Visual Color Discrimination
The ability to match or detect differences between colors, including shades of color and brightness
15 Multilimb Coordination
The ability to coordinate movements of two or more limbs together (for example, two arms, two legs, or one leg and one arm) while sitting, standing, or lying down. It does not involve performing the activities while the body is in motion
10 Far Vision
The ability to see details at a distance
The ability to imagine how something will look after it is moved around or when its parts are moved or rearranged
5 Depth Perception
The ability to judge which of several objects is closer or farther away from the observer, or to judge the distance between an object and the observer
5 Night Vision
The ability to see under low light conditions
5 Gross Body Coordination
The ability to coordinate the movement of the arms, legs, and torso together in activities where the whole body is in motion
5 Rate Control
The ability to time the adjustments of a movement or equipment control in anticipation of changes in the speed and/or direction of a continuously moving object or scene
5 Glare Sensitivity
The ability to see objects in the presence of glare or bright lighting
5 Speed of Limb Movement
The ability to quickly move the arms or legs
5 Static Strength
The ability to exert maximum muscle force to lift, push, pull, or carry objects
Work activities elements are ranked by importance.
81 Monitor Processes, Material, or Surroundings
Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, often to detect problems or to find out when things are finished.
79 Getting Information Needed to Do the Job
Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.
71 Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events
Identifying information received by making estimates or categorizations, recognizing differences or similarities, or sensing changes in circumstances or events.
67 Documenting or Recording Information
Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in either written form or by electronic/magnetic recording.
67 Repairing and Maintaining Electrical Equipment
Fixing, servicing, adjusting, regulating, calibrating, fine-tuning, or testing machines, devices, and equipment that operate primarily on the basis of electrical or electronic (not mechanical) principles.
63 Processing Information
Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, verifying, or processing information or data.
63 Handling and Moving Objects
Using one's own hands and arms in handling, installing, forming, positioning, and moving materials, or in manipulating things, including the use of keyboards.
63 Communicating With Other Workers
Providing information to supervisors, fellow workers, and subordinates. This information can be exchanged face-to-face, in writing, or via telephone/electronic transfer.
60 Analyzing Data or Information
Identifying underlying principles, reasons, or facts by breaking down information or data into separate parts.
54 Making Decisions and Solving Problems
Combining, evaluating, and reasoning with information and data to make decisions and solve problems. These processes involve making decisions about the relative importance of information and choosing the best solution.
48 Controlling Machines and Processes
Using either control mechanisms or direct physical activity to operate machines or processes (not including computers or vehicles).
48 Judging Qualities of Things, Services, or People
Making judgments about or assessing the value, importance, or quality of things or people.
46 Estimating Needed Characteristics
Estimating the Characteristics of Materials, Products, Events, or Information: Estimating sizes, distances, and quantities, or determining time, costs, resources, or materials needed to perform a work activity.
46 Evaluating Information Against Standards
Evaluating information against a set of standards and verifying that it is correct.
46 Inspecting Equipment, Structures, or Material
Inspecting or diagnosing equipment, structures, or materials to identify the causes of errors or other problems or defects.
44 Interpreting Meaning of Information to Others
Translating or explaining what information means and how it can be understood or used to support responses or feedback to others.
40 Updating and Using Job-Relevant Knowledge
Keeping up-to-date technically and knowing one's own jobs' and related jobs' functions.
31 Performing Administrative Activities
Approving requests, handling paperwork, and performing day-to-day administrative tasks.
31 Establishing and Maintaining Relationships
Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others.
29 Communicating With Persons Outside Organization
Communicating with persons outside the organization, representing the organization to customers, the public, government, and other external sources. This information can be exchanged face-to-face, in writing, or via telephone/electronic transfer.
29 Assisting and Caring for Others
Providing assistance or personal care to others.
25 Interacting With Computers
Controlling computer functions by using programs, setting up functions, writing software, or otherwise communicating with computer systems.
23 Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing
Developing plans to accomplish work, and prioritizing and organizing one's own work.
21 Implementing Ideas or Programs
Conducting or carrying out work procedures and activities in accord with one's own ideas or information provided through directions/instructions for purposes of installing, modifying, preparing, delivering, constructing, integrating, finishing, or completing programs, systems, structures, or products.
21 Coordinating Work and Activities of Others
Coordinating members of a work group to accomplish tasks.
19 Providing Consultation and Advice to Others
Providing consultation and expert advice to management or other groups on technical, systems-related, or process related topics.
17 Performing For or Working With Public
Performing for people or dealing directly with the public, including serving persons in restaurants and stores, and receiving clients or guests.
17 Performing General Physical Activities
Performing physical activities that require moving one's whole body, such as in climbing, lifting, balancing, walking, stooping, where the activities often also require considerable use of the arms and legs, such as in the physical handling of materials.
13 Developing Objectives and Strategies
Establishing long range objectives and specifying the strategies and actions to achieve these objectives.
13 Thinking Creatively
Originating, inventing, designing, or creating new applications, ideas, relationships, systems, or products, including artistic contributions.
10 Repairing and Maintaining Mechanical Equipment
Fixing, servicing, aligning, setting up, adjusting, and testing machines, devices, moving parts, and equipment that operate primarily on the basis of mechanical (not electronic) principles.
10 Scheduling Work and Activities
Scheduling events, programs, activities, as well as the work of others.
8 Coaching and Developing Others
Identifying developmental needs of others and coaching or otherwise helping others to improve their knowledge or skills.
6 Monitoring and Controlling Resources
Monitoring and controlling resources and overseeing the spending of money.
4 Developing and Building Teams
Encouraging and building mutual trust, respect, and cooperation among team members.
4 Teaching Others
Identifying educational needs, developing formal training programs or classes, and teaching or instructing others.
2 Selling or Influencing Others
Convincing others to buy merchandise/goods, or otherwise changing their minds or actions.
Work context elements are ranked by frequency (F), importance (I), responsibility (R), amount of contact (C), how serious (S), objective vs. subjective (O), automation (A), extent of frustration (E), responsible for health and safety (H), likelihood of injury (L), degree of injury (D) .
90 (F) Indoors
How frequently does this job require the worker to work: Indoors
90 (F) Sitting
How much time in a usual work period does the worker spend: Sitting?
76 (I) Importance of Being Exact or Accurate
How important is being very exact or highly accurate in performing this job?
75 (F) Using Hands on Objects, Tools, Controls
How much time in a usual work period does the worker spend: Using hands to handle, control, or feel objects, tools or controls?
70 (C) Job-Required Social Interaction
How much does this job require the worker to be in contact (face-to-face, by telephone, or otherwise) with others in order to perform it?
68 (I) Importance of Being Sure All Is Done
How important is it to be sure that all the details of this job are performed and everything is done completely?
64 (I) Importance of Being Aware of New Events
How important is being constantly aware of either frequently changing events (e.g. security guard watching for shoplifters) or infrequent events (e.g. radar operator watching for tornadoes) to performing this job?
60 (I) Importance of Repeating Same Tasks
How important is repeating the same physical activities (e.g., key entry) or mental activities (e.g., checking entries in a ledger) over and over, without stopping, to performing this job?
53 (S) Consequence of Error
How serious would the result usually be if the worker made a mistake that was not readily correctable?
52 (I) Coordinate or Lead Others
How important are interactions requiring the worker to: Coordinate or lead others in accomplishing work activities (not supervision)?
40 (O) Objective or Subjective Information
How objective or subjective is the information communicated in this job?
40 (F) Deal With Unpleasant or Angry People
How frequently does the worker have to deal with unpleasant, angry, or discourteous individuals as part of the job requirements?
37 (E) Frustrating Circumstances
To what extent do frustrating circumstances ("road blocks" to work that are beyond the worker's control) hinder the accomplishment of this job?
37 (H) Responsible for Health and Safety of Others
How responsible is the worker for others' health and safety on this job?
36 (I) Pace Determined by Speed of Equipment
How important is it to this job that the pace is determined by the speed of equipment or machinery? (This does not refer to keeping busy at all times on this job.)
35 (F) Making Repetitive Motions
How much time in a usual work period does the worker spend: Making repetitive motions?
32 (I) Deal With External Customers
How important are interactions requiring the worker to: Deal with external customers (e.g., retail sales) or the public in general (e.g., police work)?
32 (I) Provide a Service to Others
How important are interactions requiring the worker to: Provide a service to others (e.g., customers)?
30 (F) Frequency in Conflict Situations
How frequently do the job requirements place the worker in conflict situations?
27 (A) Degree of Automation
Indicate the level of automation of this job.
25 (F) Standing
How much time in a usual work period does the worker spend: Standing?
20 (F) Sounds or Noise Levels Are Distracting
How often during a usual work period is the worker exposed to the following conditions: Sounds and noise levels that are distracting and uncomfortable?
15 (F) Bending or Twisting the Body
How much time in a usual work period does the worker spend: Bending or twisting the body?
11 (R) Responsibility for Outcomes and Results
How responsible is the worker for work outcomes and results of other workers?
10 (F) Cramped Work Space, Awkward Positions
How often during a usual work period is the worker exposed to the following conditions: Cramped work space that requires getting into awkward positions?
10 (F) Hazardous Conditions
How often does this job require the worker to be exposed to hazardous conditions? Hazardous Conditions (e.g., high voltage electricity, combustibles, explosives, chemicals; do not include hazardous equipment or situations)
10 (F) Kneeling, Crouching or Crawling
How much time in a usual work period does the worker spend: Kneeling, stooping, crouching or crawling?
10 (F) Outdoors
How frequently does this job require the worker to work: Outdoors
8 (I) Supervise, Coach, Train Others
How important are interactions requiring the worker to: Supervise, coach, train, or develop other employees?
5 (F) Deal With Physically Aggressive People
How frequently does this job require the worker to deal with physical aggression of violent individuals?
5 (F) Extremely Bright or Inadequate Lighting
How often during a usual work period is the worker exposed to the following conditions: Extremely bright or inadequate lighting conditions?
5 (F) Walking or Running
How much time in a usual work period does the worker spend: Walking or running?
5 (F) Keeping or Regaining Balance
How much time in a usual work period does the worker spend: Keeping or regaining balance?
5 (F) Special Uniform
How often does the worker wear: A special uniform, such as that of a commercial pilot, nurse, police officer, or military personnel?
5 (F) Climbing Ladders, Scaffolds, Poles, etc.
How much time in a usual work period does the worker spend: Climbing ladders, scaffolds, poles, etc?
4 (I) Take a Position Opposed to Others
How important are interactions requiring the worker to: Take a position opposed to coworkers or others?
4 (D) Hazardous Conditions
If injury, due to exposure to hazardous conditions, were to occur while performing this job, how serious would be the likely outcome? Hazardous Conditions (e.g., high voltage electricity, combustibles, explosives, chemicals; do not include hazardous equipment or situations)
3 (L) Hazardous Conditions
What is the likelihood that the worker would be injured as a result of being exposed to hazardous conditions while performing this job? Hazardous Conditions (e.g., high voltage electricity, combustibles, explosives, chemicals; do not include hazardous equipment or situations)
Interest elements are ranked by occupational interest.
Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others.
Conventional occupations frequently involve following set procedures and routines. These occupations can include working with data and details more than with ideas. Usually there is a clear line of authority to follow.
Enterprising occupations frequently involve starting up and carrying out projects. These occupations can involve leading people and making many decisions. Sometimes they require risk taking and often deal with business.
Investigative occupations frequently involve working with ideas, and require an extensive amount of thinking. These occupations can involve searching for facts and figuring out problems mentally.
Social occupations frequently involve working with, communicating with, and teaching people. These occupations often involve helping or providing service to others.
Artistic occupations frequently involve working with forms, designs and patterns. They often require self-expression and the work can be done without following a clear set of rules.
Work values elements are ranked by extent.
66 Achievement-Mean Extent
Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement.
64 Support-Mean Extent
Occupations that satisfy this work value offer supportive management that stands behind employees. Corresponding needs are Company Policies, Supervision: Human Relations and Supervision: Technical.
59 Working Conditions-Mean Extent
Occupations that satisfy this work value offer job security and good working conditions. Corresponding needs are Activity, Compensation, Independence, Security, Variety and Working Conditions.
52 Relationships-Mean Extent
Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to provide service to others and work with co-workers in a friendly non-competitive environment. Corresponding needs are Co-workers, Moral Values and Social Service.
48 Recognition-Mean Extent
Occupations that satisfy this work value offer advancement, potential for leadership, and are often considered prestigious. Corresponding needs are Advancement, Authority, Recognition and Social Status.
42 Independence-Mean Extent
Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employs to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.
69 Company Policies and Practices
Workers on this job are treated fairly by the company
69 Moral Values
Workers on this job are never pressured to do things that go against their sense of right and wrong
Workers on this job get a feeling of accomplishment
69 Supervision, Human Relations
Workers on this job have supervisors who back up their workers with management
Workers on this job have steady employment
63 Ability Utilization
Workers on this job make use of their individual abilities
63 Working Conditions
Workers on this job have good working conditions
Workers on this job do their work alone
Workers on this job have something different to do every day
Workers on this job are busy all the time
Workers on this job plan their work with little supervision
53 Supervision, Technical
Workers on this job have supervisors who train their workers well
Workers on this job receive recognition for the work they do
Workers on this job have co-workers who are easy to get along with
Workers on this job are paid well in comparison with other workers
50 Social Status
Workers on this job are looked up to by others in their company and their community
Workers on this job have opportunities for advancement
Workers on this job give directions and instructions to others
Workers on this job make decisions on their own
34 Social Service
Workers on this job have work where they do things for other people
Workers on this job try out their own ideas