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TITLE: Anthropologists

DEFINITION: Research or study the origins and physical, social, and cultural development and behavior of humans and the cultures and organizations they have created.

  • TASKS
  • KNOWLEDGE
  • SKILLS
  • ABILITIES
  • WORK ACTIVITIES
  • WORK CONTEXT
  • INTERESTS
  • WORK VALUES
  • CROSSWALKS


    TASKS:

    1. Gathers, analyzes, and reports data on human physique, social customs, and artifacts, such as weapons, tools, pottery, and clothing.

    2. Studies museum collections of skeletal remains and human fossils to determine their meaning in terms of long-range human evolution.

    3. Studies physical and physiological adaptations to differing environments and hereditary characteristics of living populations.

    4. Studies growth patterns, sexual differences, and aging phenomena of human groups, current and past.

    5. Studies cultures, particularly preindustrial and non-Western societies, including religion, economics, mythology and traditions, and intellectual and artistic life.

    6. Observes and measures bodily variations and physical attributes of existing human types.

    7. Studies relationships between language and culture and socialinguistic studies, relationship between individual personality and culture, or complex industrialized societies.

    8. Formulates general laws of cultural development, general rules of social and cultural behavior, or general value orientations.

    9. Applies anthropological data and techniques to solution of problems in human relations.

    10. Applies anthropological concepts to current problems.

    KNOWLEDGE:
    Knowledge elements are ranked by importance.

    100 Sociology and Anthropology
    Knowledge of group behavior and dynamics, societal trends and influences, cultures, their history, migrations, ethnicity, and origins

    92 History and Archeology
    Knowledge of past historical events and their causes, indicators, and impact on particular civilizations and cultures

    75 English Language
    Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar

    63 Geography
    Knowledge of various methods for describing the location and distribution of land, sea, and air masses including their physical locations, relationships, and characteristics

    58 Biology
    Knowledge of plant and animal living tissue, cells, organisms, and entities, including their functions, interdependencies, and interactions with each other and the environment

    50 Philosophy and Theology
    Knowledge of different philosophical systems and religions, including their basic principles, values, ethics, ways of thinking, customs, and practices, and their impact on human culture

    46 Mathematics
    Knowledge of numbers, their operations, and interrelationships including arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, and their applications

    42 Communications and Media
    Knowledge of media production, communication, and dissemination techniques and methods including alternative ways to inform and entertain via written, oral, and visual media

    42 Administration and Management
    Knowledge of principles and processes involved in business and organizational planning, coordination, and execution. This includes strategic planning, resource allocation, manpower modeling, leadership techniques, and production methods

    38 Computers and Electronics
    Knowledge of electric circuit boards, processors, chips, and computer hardware and software, including applications and programming

    33 Foreign Language
    Knowledge of the structure and content of a foreign (non-English) language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition and grammar, and pronunciation

    33 Education and Training
    Knowledge of instructional methods and training techniques including curriculum design principles, learning theory, group and individual teaching techniques, design of individual development plans, and test design principles

    29 Clerical
    Knowledge of administrative and clerical procedures and systems such as word processing systems, filing and records management systems, stenography and transcription, forms design principles, and other office procedures and terminology

    29 Physics
    Knowledge and prediction of physical principles, laws, and applications including air, water, material dynamics, light, atomic principles, heat, electric theory, earth formations, and meteorological and related natural phenomena

    29 Psychology
    Knowledge of human behavior and performance, mental processes, psychological research methods, and the assessment and treatment of behavioral and affective disorders

    25 Personnel and Human Resources
    Knowledge of policies and practices involved in personnel/human resource functions. This includes recruitment, selection, training, and promotion regulations and procedures; compensation and benefits packages; labor relations and negotiation strategies; and personnel information systems

    21 Chemistry
    Knowledge of the composition, structure, and properties of substances and of the chemical processes and transformations that they undergo. This includes uses of chemicals and their interactions, danger signs, production techniques, and disposal methods

    13 Engineering and Technology
    Knowledge of equipment, tools, mechanical devices, and their uses to produce motion, light, power, technology, and other applications

    13 Telecommunications
    Knowledge of transmission, broadcasting, switching, control, and operation of telecommunications systems

    13 Law, Government and Jurisprudence
    Knowledge of laws, legal codes, court procedures, precedents, government regulations, executive orders, agency rules, and the democratic political process

    13 Fine Arts
    Knowledge of theory and techniques required to produce, compose, and perform works of music, dance, visual arts, drama, and sculpture

    8 Transportation
    Knowledge of principles and methods for moving people or goods by air, rail, sea, or road, including their relative costs, advantages, and limitations

    8 Production and Processing
    Knowledge of inputs, outputs, raw materials, waste, quality control, costs, and techniques for maximizing the manufacture and distribution of goods

    8 Economics and Accounting
    Knowledge of economic and accounting principles and practices, the financial markets, banking, and the analysis and reporting of financial data

    4 Mechanical
    Knowledge of machines and tools, including their designs, uses, benefits, repair, and maintenance

    4 Design
    Knowledge of design techniques, principles, tools and instruments involved in the production and use of precision technical plans, blueprints, drawings, and models

    4 Public Safety and Security
    Knowledge of weaponry, public safety, and security operations, rules, regulations, precautions, prevention, and the protection of people, data, and property

    4 Food Production
    Knowledge of techniques and equipment for planting, growing, and harvesting of food for consumption including crop rotation methods, animal husbandry, and food storage/handling techniques

    SKILLS:
    Skills elements are ranked by importance.

    96 Active Learning
    Working with new material or information to grasp its implications

    92 Information Gathering
    Knowing how to find information and identifying essential information

    92 Reading Comprehension
    Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents

    92 Writing
    Communicating effectively with others in writing as indicated by the needs of the audience

    88 Science
    Using scientific methods to solve problems

    88 Information Organization
    Finding ways to structure or classify multiple pieces of information

    83 Critical Thinking
    Using logic and analysis to identify the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches

    75 Idea Generation
    Generating a number of different approaches to problems

    75 Social Perceptiveness
    Being aware of others' reactions and understanding why they react the way they do

    75 Synthesis/Reorganization
    Reorganizing information to get a better approach to problems or tasks

    71 Speaking
    Talking to others to effectively convey information

    67 Active Listening
    Listening to what other people are saying and asking questions as appropriate

    58 Coordination
    Adjusting actions in relation to others' actions

    58 Solution Appraisal
    Observing and evaluating the outcomes of a problem solution to identify lessons learned or redirect efforts

    58 Implementation Planning
    Developing approaches for implementing an idea

    58 Problem Identification
    Identifying the nature of problems

    54 Learning Strategies
    Using multiple approaches when learning or teaching new things

    54 Instructing
    Teaching others how to do something

    54 Idea Evaluation
    Evaluating the likely success of an idea in relation to the demands of the situation

    50 Product Inspection
    Inspecting and evaluating the quality of products

    50 Systems Perception
    Determining when important changes have occurred in a system or are likely to occur

    50 Mathematics
    Using mathematics to solve problems

    46 Visioning
    Developing an image of how a system should work under ideal conditions

    42 Monitoring
    Assessing how well one is doing when learning or doing something

    42 Judgment and Decision Making
    Weighing the relative costs and benefits of a potential action

    42 Identification of Key Causes
    Identifying the things that must be changed to achieve a goal

    42 Management of Personnel Resources
    Motivating, developing, and directing people as they work, identifying the best people for the job

    38 Time Management
    Managing one's own time and the time of others

    29 Operations Analysis
    Analyzing needs and product requirements to create a design

    29 Equipment Selection
    Determining the kind of tools and equipment needed to do a job

    25 Systems Evaluation
    Looking at many indicators of system performance, taking into account their accuracy

    25 Identifying Downstream Consequences
    Determining the long-term outcomes of a change in operations

    17 Operation and Control
    Controlling operations of equipment or systems

    17 Management of Material Resources
    Obtaining and seeing to the appropriate use of equipment, facilities, and materials needed to do certain work

    13 Management of Financial Resources
    Determining how money will be spent to get the work done, and accounting for these expenditures

    8 Persuasion
    Persuading others to approach things differently

    8 Service Orientation
    Actively looking for ways to help people

    8 Programming
    Writing computer programs for various purposes

    8 Operation Monitoring
    Watching gauges, dials, or other indicators to make sure a machine is working properly

    4 Technology Design
    Generating or adapting equipment and technology to serve user needs

    4 Installation
    Installing equipment, machines, wiring, or programs to meet specifications

    4 Testing
    Conducting tests to determine whether equipment, software, or procedures are operating as expected

    4 Negotiation
    Bringing others together and trying to reconcile differences .

    ABILITIES:
    Abilities elements are ranked by importance.

    90 Oral Comprehension
    The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences

    90 Written Expression
    The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand

    85 Inductive Reasoning
    The ability to combine separate pieces of information, or specific answers to problems, to form general rules or conclusions. It includes coming up with a logical explanation for why a series of seemingly unrelated events occur together.

    85 Written Comprehension
    The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing

    75 Fluency of Ideas
    The ability to come up with a number of ideas about a given topic. It concerns the number of ideas produced and not the quality, correctness, or creativity of the ideas.

    70 Oral Expression
    The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand

    65 Category Flexibility
    The ability to produce many rules so that each rule tells how to group (or combine) a set of things in a different way.

    65 Deductive Reasoning
    The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to come up with logical answers. It involves deciding if an answer makes sense.

    60 Near Vision
    The ability to see details of objects at a close range (within a few feet of the observer)

    60 Number Facility
    The ability to add, subtract, multiply, or divide quickly and correctly

    60 Speech Clarity
    The ability to speak clearly so that it is understandable to a listener

    55 Information Ordering
    The ability to correctly follow a given rule or set of rules in order to arrange things or actions in a certain order. The things or actions can include numbers, letters, words, pictures, procedures, sentences, and mathematical or logical operations.

    50 Speed of Closure
    The ability to quickly make sense of information that seems to be without meaning or organization. It involves quickly combining and organizing different pieces of information into a meaningful pattern

    50 Memorization
    The ability to remember information such as words, numbers, pictures, and procedures

    45 Speech Recognition
    The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person

    45 Flexibility of Closure
    The ability to identify or detect a known pattern (a figure, object, word, or sound) that is hidden in other distracting material

    40 Mathematical Reasoning
    The ability to understand and organize a problem and then to select a mathematical method or formula to solve the problem

    40 Auditory Attention
    The ability to focus on a single source of auditory (hearing) information in the presence of other distracting sounds

    35 Visualization
    The ability to imagine how something will look after it is moved around or when its parts are moved or rearranged

    35 Far Vision
    The ability to see details at a distance

    35 Visual Color Discrimination
    The ability to match or detect differences between colors, including shades of color and brightness

    25 Originality
    The ability to come up with unusual or clever ideas about a given topic or situation, or to develop creative ways to solve a problem

    25 Spatial Orientation
    The ability to know one's location in relation to the environment, or to know where other objects are in relation to one's self

    25 Problem Sensitivity
    The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing there is a problem.

    20 Perceptual Speed
    The ability to quickly and accurately compare letters, numbers, objects, pictures, or patterns. The things to be compared may be presented at the same time or one after the other. This ability also includes comparing a presented object with a remembered object

    20 Trunk Strength
    The ability to use one's abdominal and lower back muscles to support part of the body repeatedly or continuously over time without "giving out" or fatiguing

    20 Extent Flexibility
    The ability to bend, stretch, twist, or reach out with the body, arms, and/or legs

    15 Night Vision
    The ability to see under low light conditions

    15 Stamina
    The ability to exert one's self physically over long periods of time without getting winded or out of breath

    15 Selective Attention
    The ability to concentrate and not be distracted while performing a task over a period of time

    10 Time Sharing
    The ability to efficiently shift back and forth between two or more activities or sources of information (such as speech, sounds, touch, or other sources)

    10 Wrist-Finger Speed
    The ability to make fast, simple, repeated movements of the fingers, hands, and wrists

    10 Peripheral Vision
    The ability to see objects or movement of objects to one's side when the eyes are focused forward

    10 Depth Perception
    The ability to judge which of several objects is closer or farther away from the observer, or to judge the distance between an object and the observer

    10 Static Strength
    The ability to exert maximum muscle force to lift, push, pull, or carry objects

    10 Control Precision
    The ability to quickly and repeatedly make precise adjustments in moving the controls of a machine or vehicle to exact positions

    10 Finger Dexterity
    The ability to make precisely coordinated movements of the fingers of one or both hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble very small objects

    5 Arm-Hand Steadiness
    The ability to keep the hand and arm steady while making an arm movement or while holding the arm and hand in one position

    5 Manual Dexterity
    The ability to quickly make coordinated movements of one hand, a hand together with its arm, or two hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble objects

    5 Response Orientation
    The ability to choose quickly and correctly between two or more movements in response to two or more signals (lights, sounds, pictures, etc.). It includes the speed with which the correct response is started with the hand, foot, or other body parts

    5 Explosive Strength
    The ability to use short bursts of muscle force to propel oneself (as in jumping or sprinting), or to throw an object

    5 Dynamic Strength
    The ability to exert muscle force repeatedly or continuously over time. This involves muscular endurance and resistance to muscle fatigue

    5 Gross Body Coordination
    The ability to coordinate the movement of the arms, legs, and torso together in activities where the whole body is in motion

    5 Gross Body Equilibrium
    The ability to keep or regain one's body balance or stay upright when in an unstable position

    5 Sound Localization
    The ability to tell the direction from which a sound originated

    5 Multilimb Coordination
    The ability to coordinate movements of two or more limbs together (for example, two arms, two legs, or one leg and one arm) while sitting, standing, or lying down. It does not involve performing the activities while the body is in motion

    WORK ACTIVITIES:
    Work activities elements are ranked by importance.

    83 Getting Information Needed to Do the Job
    Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.

    83 Analyzing Data or Information
    Identifying underlying principles, reasons, or facts by breaking down information or data into separate parts.

    79 Processing Information
    Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, verifying, or processing information or data.

    75 Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events
    Identifying information received by making estimates or categorizations, recognizing differences or similarities, or sensing changes in circumstances or events.

    71 Judging Qualities of Things, Services, or People
    Making judgments about or assessing the value, importance, or quality of things or people.

    67 Making Decisions and Solving Problems
    Combining, evaluating, and reasoning with information and data to make decisions and solve problems. These processes involve making decisions about the relative importance of information and choosing the best solution.

    63 Interpreting Meaning of Information to Others
    Translating or explaining what information means and how it can be understood or used to support responses or feedback to others.

    54 Documenting or Recording Information
    Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in either written form or by electronic/magnetic recording.

    54 Updating and Using Job-Relevant Knowledge
    Keeping up-to-date technically and knowing one's own jobs' and related jobs' functions.

    54 Communicating With Other Workers
    Providing information to supervisors, fellow workers, and subordinates. This information can be exchanged face-to-face, in writing, or via telephone/electronic transfer.

    54 Implementing Ideas or Programs
    Conducting or carrying out work procedures and activities in accord with one's own ideas or information provided through directions/instructions for purposes of installing, modifying, preparing, delivering, constructing, integrating, finishing, or completing programs, systems, structures, or products.

    54 Estimating Needed Characteristics
    Estimating the Characteristics of Materials, Products, Events, or Information: Estimating sizes, distances, and quantities, or determining time, costs, resources, or materials needed to perform a work activity.

    50 Providing Consultation and Advice to Others
    Providing consultation and expert advice to management or other groups on technical, systems-related, or process related topics.

    46 Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing
    Developing plans to accomplish work, and prioritizing and organizing one's own work.

    42 Thinking Creatively
    Originating, inventing, designing, or creating new applications, ideas, relationships, systems, or products, including artistic contributions.

    42 Handling and Moving Objects
    Using one's own hands and arms in handling, installing, forming, positioning, and moving materials, or in manipulating things, including the use of keyboards.

    42 Teaching Others
    Identifying educational needs, developing formal training programs or classes, and teaching or instructing others.

    42 Evaluating Information Against Standards
    Evaluating information against a set of standards and verifying that it is correct.

    38 Interacting With Computers
    Controlling computer functions by using programs, setting up functions, writing software, or otherwise communicating with computer systems.

    38 Communicating With Persons Outside Organization
    Communicating with persons outside the organization, representing the organization to customers, the public, government, and other external sources. This information can be exchanged face-to-face, in writing, or via telephone/electronic transfer.

    38 Coaching and Developing Others
    Identifying developmental needs of others and coaching or otherwise helping others to improve their knowledge or skills.

    38 Guiding, Directing and Motivating Subordinates
    Providing guidance and direction to subordinates, including setting performance standards and monitoring subordinates.

    38 Coordinating Work and Activities of Others
    Coordinating members of a work group to accomplish tasks.

    38 Monitor Processes, Material, or Surroundings
    Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, often to detect problems or to find out when things are finished.

    38 Inspecting Equipment, Structures, or Material
    Inspecting or diagnosing equipment, structures, or materials to identify the causes of errors or other problems or defects.

    33 Establishing and Maintaining Relationships
    Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others.

    29 Developing and Building Teams
    Encouraging and building mutual trust, respect, and cooperation among team members.

    29 Performing Administrative Activities
    Approving requests, handling paperwork, and performing day-to-day administrative tasks.

    29 Developing Objectives and Strategies
    Establishing long range objectives and specifying the strategies and actions to achieve these objectives.

    25 Performing General Physical Activities
    Performing physical activities that require moving one's whole body, such as in climbing, lifting, balancing, walking, stooping, where the activities often also require considerable use of the arms and legs, such as in the physical handling of materials.

    25 Monitoring and Controlling Resources
    Monitoring and controlling resources and overseeing the spending of money.

    21 Drafting and Specifying Technical Devices
    Providing documentation, detailed instructions, drawings, or specifications to inform others about how devices, parts, equipment, or structures are to be fabricated, constructed, assembled, modified, maintained, or used.

    17 Scheduling Work and Activities
    Scheduling events, programs, activities, as well as the work of others.

    17 Assisting and Caring for Others
    Providing assistance or personal care to others.

    17 Selling or Influencing Others
    Convincing others to buy merchandise/goods, or otherwise changing their minds or actions.

    17 Resolving Conflict or Negotiating with Others
    Handling complaints, arbitrating disputes, and resolving grievances, or otherwise negotiating with others.

    8 Controlling Machines and Processes
    Using either control mechanisms or direct physical activity to operate machines or processes (not including computers or vehicles).

    8 Performing For or Working With Public
    Performing for people or dealing directly with the public, including serving persons in restaurants and stores, and receiving clients or guests.

    8 Staffing Organizational Units
    Recruiting, interviewing, selecting, hiring, and promoting persons for the organization.

    8 Operating Vehicles or Equipment
    Running, maneuvering, navigating, or driving vehicles or mechanized equipment, such as forklifts, passenger vehicles, aircraft, or water craft.

    WORK CONTEXT:
    Work context elements are ranked by frequency (F), importance (I), responsibility (R), amount of contact (C), how serious (S), objective vs. subjective (O), automation (A), extent of frustration (E), responsible for health and safety (H), likelihood of injury (L), degree of injury (D) .

    75 (F) Indoors
    How frequently does this job require the worker to work: Indoors

    75 (F) Sitting
    How much time in a usual work period does the worker spend: Sitting?

    72 (I) Importance of Being Exact or Accurate
    How important is being very exact or highly accurate in performing this job?

    64 (I) Importance of Being Sure All Is Done
    How important is it to be sure that all the details of this job are performed and everything is done completely?

    56 (I) Importance of Being Aware of New Events
    How important is being constantly aware of either frequently changing events (e.g. security guard watching for shoplifters) or infrequent events (e.g. radar operator watching for tornadoes) to performing this job?

    56 (I) Coordinate or Lead Others
    How important are interactions requiring the worker to: Coordinate or lead others in accomplishing work activities (not supervision)?

    52 (I) Supervise, Coach, Train Others
    How important are interactions requiring the worker to: Supervise, coach, train, or develop other employees?

    47 (O) Objective or Subjective Information
    How objective or subjective is the information communicated in this job?

    45 (F) Outdoors
    How frequently does this job require the worker to work: Outdoors

    45 (F) Using Hands on Objects, Tools, Controls
    How much time in a usual work period does the worker spend: Using hands to handle, control, or feel objects, tools or controls?

    40 (F) Standing
    How much time in a usual work period does the worker spend: Standing?

    35 (F) Walking or Running
    How much time in a usual work period does the worker spend: Walking or running?

    33 (C) Job-Required Social Interaction
    How much does this job require the worker to be in contact (face-to-face, by telephone, or otherwise) with others in order to perform it?

    30 (F) Kneeling, Crouching or Crawling
    How much time in a usual work period does the worker spend: Kneeling, stooping, crouching or crawling?

    29 (R) Responsibility for Outcomes and Results
    How responsible is the worker for work outcomes and results of other workers?

    27 (S) Consequence of Error
    How serious would the result usually be if the worker made a mistake that was not readily correctable?

    23 (E) Frustrating Circumstances
    To what extent do frustrating circumstances ("road blocks" to work that are beyond the worker's control) hinder the accomplishment of this job?

    20 (F) Bending or Twisting the Body
    How much time in a usual work period does the worker spend: Bending or twisting the body?

    16 (I) Importance of Repeating Same Tasks
    How important is repeating the same physical activities (e.g., key entry) or mental activities (e.g., checking entries in a ledger) over and over, without stopping, to performing this job?

    11 (H) Responsible for Health and Safety of Others
    How responsible is the worker for others' health and safety on this job?

    10 (F) Climbing Ladders, Scaffolds, Poles, etc.
    How much time in a usual work period does the worker spend: Climbing ladders, scaffolds, poles, etc?

    10 (F) Common Protective or Safety Attire
    How often does the worker wear: Common protective or safety attire, such as safety shoes, glasses, gloves, hearing protection, hard-hat, or personal flotation device?

    10 (F) Frequency in Conflict Situations
    How frequently do the job requirements place the worker in conflict situations?

    8 (I) Deal With External Customers
    How important are interactions requiring the worker to: Deal with external customers (e.g., retail sales) or the public in general (e.g., police work)?

    8 (I) Take a Position Opposed to Others
    How important are interactions requiring the worker to: Take a position opposed to coworkers or others?

    5 (F) Specialized Protective or Safety Attire
    How often does the worker wear: Specialized protective or safety attire, such as breathing apparatus, safety harness, full protection suit, or radiation protection?

    5 (F) Extremely Bright or Inadequate Lighting
    How often during a usual work period is the worker exposed to the following conditions: Extremely bright or inadequate lighting conditions?

    5 (F) Very Hot
    How often during a usual work period is the worker exposed to the following conditions: Very hot (above 90 F) or very cold (under 32 F) temperatures?

    5 (F) Sounds or Noise Levels Are Distracting
    How often during a usual work period is the worker exposed to the following conditions: Sounds and noise levels that are distracting and uncomfortable?

    5 (F) High Places
    How often does this job require the worker to be exposed to high places? High Places (e.g., heights above 8 feet on ladders, poles, scaffolding, catwalks, etc.)

    4 (I) Pace Determined by Speed of Equipment
    How important is it to this job that the pace is determined by the speed of equipment or machinery? (This does not refer to keeping busy at all times on this job.)

    INTERESTS:
    Interest elements are ranked by occupational interest.

    94 Investigative
    Investigative occupations frequently involve working with ideas, and require an extensive amount of thinking. These occupations can involve searching for facts and figuring out problems mentally.

    61 Social
    Social occupations frequently involve working with, communicating with, and teaching people. These occupations often involve helping or providing service to others.

    56 Artistic
    Artistic occupations frequently involve working with forms, designs and patterns. They often require self-expression and the work can be done without following a clear set of rules.

    39 Conventional
    Conventional occupations frequently involve following set procedures and routines. These occupations can include working with data and details more than with ideas. Usually there is a clear line of authority to follow.

    17 Enterprising
    Enterprising occupations frequently involve starting up and carrying out projects. These occupations can involve leading people and making many decisions. Sometimes they require risk taking and often deal with business.

    17 Realistic
    Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others.

    WORK VALUES:
    Work values elements are ranked by extent.

    81 Independence-Mean Extent
    Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employs to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.

    78 Achievement-Mean Extent
    Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement.

    55 Working Conditions-Mean Extent
    Occupations that satisfy this work value offer job security and good working conditions. Corresponding needs are Activity, Compensation, Independence, Security, Variety and Working Conditions.

    52 Recognition-Mean Extent
    Occupations that satisfy this work value offer advancement, potential for leadership, and are often considered prestigious. Corresponding needs are Advancement, Authority, Recognition and Social Status.

    47 Relationships-Mean Extent
    Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to provide service to others and work with co-workers in a friendly non-competitive environment. Corresponding needs are Co-workers, Moral Values and Social Service.

    26 Support-Mean Extent
    Occupations that satisfy this work value offer supportive management that stands behind employees. Corresponding needs are Company Policies, Supervision: Human Relations and Supervision: Technical.

    88 Autonomy
    Workers on this job plan their work with little supervision

    81 Ability Utilization
    Workers on this job make use of their individual abilities

    78 Responsibility
    Workers on this job make decisions on their own

    78 Creativity
    Workers on this job try out their own ideas

    75 Achievement
    Workers on this job get a feeling of accomplishment

    72 Moral Values
    Workers on this job are never pressured to do things that go against their sense of right and wrong

    66 Variety
    Workers on this job have something different to do every day

    66 Social Status
    Workers on this job are looked up to by others in their company and their community

    59 Recognition
    Workers on this job receive recognition for the work they do

    59 Security
    Workers on this job have steady employment

    53 Activity
    Workers on this job are busy all the time

    53 Working Conditions
    Workers on this job have good working conditions

    50 Independence
    Workers on this job do their work alone

    47 Compensation
    Workers on this job are paid well in comparison with other workers

    44 Co-workers
    Workers on this job have co-workers who are easy to get along with

    44 Authority
    Workers on this job give directions and instructions to others

    41 Company Policies and Practices
    Workers on this job are treated fairly by the company

    38 Advancement
    Workers on this job have opportunities for advancement

    31 Supervision, Human Relations
    Workers on this job have supervisors who back up their workers with management

    25 Social Service
    Workers on this job have work where they do things for other people

    6 Supervision, Technical
    Workers on this job have supervisors who train their workers well

    CROSSWALKS:
    DOT91 (Dictionary of Occupational Titles): 055067014 Anthropologist, Physical
    055067010 Anthropologist
    055067022 Ethnologist

    AIM97 (Apprenticeship Information Management): No crosswalks

    CEN90 (1990 Census Occupations): 169 Social Scientists, N.E.C.

    CIP90 (Classification of Instructional Programs): 500905 Musicology and Ethnomusicology
    450301 Archeology
    450501 Demography/Population Studies
    450201 Anthropology
    450901 International Relations and Affairs
    500901 Music, General
    451101 Sociology

    GOE93 (Guide for Occupational Exploration): 020201 Life Sciences: Animal Specialization
    110303 Social Research: Historical

    MOC97 (Military Occupational Codes): No crosswalks

    OES98 (Occupational Employment Statistics): 27199 All Other Social Scientists

    OPM97 (Office of Personnel Management Occupations): 0190 General Anthropology
    0199 Social Science Student Trainee
    0101 Social Science

    SOC98 (Standard Occupational Classification): 19-3091 Anthropologists and Archeologists


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