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TITLE: Clinical Psychologists

DEFINITION: Diagnose or evaluate mental and emotional disorders of individuals through observation, interview, and psychological tests, and formulate and administer programs of treatment.

  • TASKS
  • KNOWLEDGE
  • SKILLS
  • ABILITIES
  • WORK ACTIVITIES
  • WORK CONTEXT
  • INTERESTS
  • WORK VALUES
  • CROSSWALKS


    TASKS:

    1. Observes individual at play, in group interactions, or other situations to detect indications of mental deficiency, abnormal behavior, or maladjustment.

    2. Develops treatment plan, including type, frequency, intensity, and duration of therapy, in collaboration with psychiatrist and other specialists.

    3. Analyzes information to assess client problems, determine advisability of counseling, and refer client to other specialists, institutions, or support services.

    4. Conducts individual and group counseling sessions regarding psychological or emotional problems, such as stress, substance abuse, and family situations.

    5. Responds to client reactions, evaluates effectiveness of counseling or treatment, and modifies plan as needed.

    6. Interviews individuals, couples, or families, and reviews records to obtain information on medical, psychological, emotional, relationship, or other problems.

    7. Selects, administers, scores, and interprets psychological tests to obtain information on individual's intelligence, achievement, interest, and personality.

    8. Utilizes treatment methods, such as psychotherapy, hypnosis, behavior modification, stress reduction therapy, psychodrama, and play therapy.

    9. Plans and develops accredited psychological service programs in psychiatric center or hospital, in collaboration with psychiatrists and other professional staff.

    10. Consults reference material, such as textbooks, manuals, and journals, to identify symptoms, make diagnoses, and develop approach to treatment.

    11. Assists clients to gain insight, define goals, and plan action to achieve effective personal, social, educational, and vocational development and adjustment.

    12. Provides occupational, educational, and other information to enable individual to formulate realistic educational and vocational plans.

    13. Plans, supervises, and conducts psychological research in fields such as personality development, and diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental disorders.

    14. Directs, coordinates, and evaluates activities of psychological staff and student interns engaged in patient evaluation and treatment in psychiatric facility.

    15. Provides psychological services and advice to private firms and community agencies on individual cases or mental health programs.

    16. Develops, directs, and participates in staff training programs.

    KNOWLEDGE:
    Knowledge elements are ranked by importance.

    100 Psychology
    Knowledge of human behavior and performance, mental processes, psychological research methods, and the assessment and treatment of behavioral and affective disorders

    100 Therapy and Counseling
    Knowledge of information and techniques needed to rehabilitate physical and mental ailments and to provide career guidance including alternative treatments, rehabilitation equipment and its proper use, and methods to evaluate treatment effects

    80 English Language
    Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar

    55 Customer and Personal Service
    Knowledge of principles and processes for providing customer and personal services including needs assessment techniques, quality service standards, alternative delivery systems, and customer satisfaction evaluation techniques

    55 Administration and Management
    Knowledge of principles and processes involved in business and organizational planning, coordination, and execution. This includes strategic planning, resource allocation, manpower modeling, leadership techniques, and production methods

    50 Education and Training
    Knowledge of instructional methods and training techniques including curriculum design principles, learning theory, group and individual teaching techniques, design of individual development plans, and test design principles

    35 Personnel and Human Resources
    Knowledge of policies and practices involved in personnel/human resource functions. This includes recruitment, selection, training, and promotion regulations and procedures; compensation and benefits packages; labor relations and negotiation strategies; and personnel information systems

    35 Mathematics
    Knowledge of numbers, their operations, and interrelationships including arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, statistics, and their applications

    35 Biology
    Knowledge of plant and animal living tissue, cells, organisms, and entities, including their functions, interdependencies, and interactions with each other and the environment

    35 Sociology and Anthropology
    Knowledge of group behavior and dynamics, societal trends and influences, cultures, their history, migrations, ethnicity, and origins

    25 Clerical
    Knowledge of administrative and clerical procedures and systems such as word processing systems, filing and records management systems, stenography and transcription, forms design principles, and other office procedures and terminology

    25 Medicine and Dentistry
    Knowledge of the information and techniques needed to diagnose and treat injuries, diseases, and deformities. This includes symptoms, treatment alternatives, drug properties and interactions, and preventive health-care measures

    25 Chemistry
    Knowledge of the composition, structure, and properties of substances and of the chemical processes and transformations that they undergo. This includes uses of chemicals and their interactions, danger signs, production techniques, and disposal methods

    25 Computers and Electronics
    Knowledge of electric circuit boards, processors, chips, and computer hardware and software, including applications and programming

    20 Communications and Media
    Knowledge of media production, communication, and dissemination techniques and methods including alternative ways to inform and entertain via written, oral, and visual media

    15 Law, Government and Jurisprudence
    Knowledge of laws, legal codes, court procedures, precedents, government regulations, executive orders, agency rules, and the democratic political process

    5 Economics and Accounting
    Knowledge of economic and accounting principles and practices, the financial markets, banking, and the analysis and reporting of financial data

    5 History and Archeology
    Knowledge of past historical events and their causes, indicators, and impact on particular civilizations and cultures

    5 Philosophy and Theology
    Knowledge of different philosophical systems and religions, including their basic principles, values, ethics, ways of thinking, customs, and practices, and their impact on human culture

    5 Telecommunications
    Knowledge of transmission, broadcasting, switching, control, and operation of telecommunications systems

    SKILLS:
    Skills elements are ranked by importance.

    100 Active Listening
    Listening to what other people are saying and asking questions as appropriate

    95 Problem Identification
    Identifying the nature of problems

    95 Social Perceptiveness
    Being aware of others' reactions and understanding why they react the way they do

    90 Reading Comprehension
    Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents

    85 Identification of Key Causes
    Identifying the things that must be changed to achieve a goal

    85 Critical Thinking
    Using logic and analysis to identify the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches

    80 Speaking
    Talking to others to effectively convey information

    80 Information Gathering
    Knowing how to find information and identifying essential information

    75 Writing
    Communicating effectively with others in writing as indicated by the needs of the audience

    75 Active Learning
    Working with new material or information to grasp its implications

    70 Monitoring
    Assessing how well one is doing when learning or doing something

    70 Information Organization
    Finding ways to structure or classify multiple pieces of information

    70 Solution Appraisal
    Observing and evaluating the outcomes of a problem solution to identify lessons learned or redirect efforts

    65 Persuasion
    Persuading others to approach things differently

    65 Service Orientation
    Actively looking for ways to help people

    65 Implementation Planning
    Developing approaches for implementing an idea

    60 Learning Strategies
    Using multiple approaches when learning or teaching new things

    60 Mathematics
    Using mathematics to solve problems

    60 Idea Evaluation
    Evaluating the likely success of an idea in relation to the demands of the situation

    60 Visioning
    Developing an image of how a system should work under ideal conditions

    60 Synthesis/Reorganization
    Reorganizing information to get a better approach to problems or tasks

    60 Judgment and Decision Making
    Weighing the relative costs and benefits of a potential action

    60 Coordination
    Adjusting actions in relation to others' actions

    55 Science
    Using scientific methods to solve problems

    55 Negotiation
    Bringing others together and trying to reconcile differences

    55 Idea Generation
    Generating a number of different approaches to problems

    55 Systems Evaluation
    Looking at many indicators of system performance, taking into account their accuracy

    50 Time Management
    Managing one's own time and the time of others

    50 Management of Personnel Resources
    Motivating, developing, and directing people as they work, identifying the best people for the job

    50 Instructing
    Teaching others how to do something

    50 Identifying Downstream Consequences
    Determining the long-term outcomes of a change in operations

    50 Systems Perception
    Determining when important changes have occurred in a system or are likely to occur

    30 Operations Analysis
    Analyzing needs and product requirements to create a design

    25 Management of Material Resources
    Obtaining and seeing to the appropriate use of equipment, facilities, and materials needed to do certain work

    20 Product Inspection
    Inspecting and evaluating the quality of products

    15 Equipment Selection
    Determining the kind of tools and equipment needed to do a job

    10 Programming
    Writing computer programs for various purposes

    10 Troubleshooting
    Determining what is causing an operating error and deciding what to do about it

    10 Management of Financial Resources
    Determining how money will be spent to get the work done, and accounting for these expenditures

    10 Operation Monitoring
    Watching gauges, dials, or other indicators to make sure a machine is working properly

    5 Operation and Control
    Controlling operations of equipment or systems

    5 Repairing
    Repairing machines or systems using the needed tools

    5 Installation
    Installing equipment, machines, wiring, or programs to meet specifications

    5 Technology Design
    Generating or adapting equipment and technology to serve user needs

    5 Equipment Maintenance
    Performing routine maintenance and determining when and what kind of maintenance is needed

    5 Testing
    Conducting tests to determine whether equipment, software, or procedures are operating as expected .

    ABILITIES:
    Abilities elements are ranked by importance.

    95 Written Comprehension
    The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing

    95 Oral Comprehension
    The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences

    95 Oral Expression
    The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand

    90 Problem Sensitivity
    The ability to tell when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong. It does not involve solving the problem, only recognizing there is a problem.

    90 Inductive Reasoning
    The ability to combine separate pieces of information, or specific answers to problems, to form general rules or conclusions. It includes coming up with a logical explanation for why a series of seemingly unrelated events occur together.

    85 Deductive Reasoning
    The ability to apply general rules to specific problems to come up with logical answers. It involves deciding if an answer makes sense.

    85 Written Expression
    The ability to communicate information and ideas in writing so others will understand

    75 Fluency of Ideas
    The ability to come up with a number of ideas about a given topic. It concerns the number of ideas produced and not the quality, correctness, or creativity of the ideas.

    70 Originality
    The ability to come up with unusual or clever ideas about a given topic or situation, or to develop creative ways to solve a problem

    65 Speech Clarity
    The ability to speak clearly so that it is understandable to a listener

    60 Information Ordering
    The ability to correctly follow a given rule or set of rules in order to arrange things or actions in a certain order. The things or actions can include numbers, letters, words, pictures, procedures, sentences, and mathematical or logical operations.

    60 Memorization
    The ability to remember information such as words, numbers, pictures, and procedures

    60 Time Sharing
    The ability to efficiently shift back and forth between two or more activities or sources of information (such as speech, sounds, touch, or other sources)

    55 Speed of Closure
    The ability to quickly make sense of information that seems to be without meaning or organization. It involves quickly combining and organizing different pieces of information into a meaningful pattern

    50 Near Vision
    The ability to see details of objects at a close range (within a few feet of the observer)

    50 Selective Attention
    The ability to concentrate and not be distracted while performing a task over a period of time

    45 Speech Recognition
    The ability to identify and understand the speech of another person

    45 Flexibility of Closure
    The ability to identify or detect a known pattern (a figure, object, word, or sound) that is hidden in other distracting material

    40 Category Flexibility
    The ability to produce many rules so that each rule tells how to group (or combine) a set of things in a different way.

    35 Perceptual Speed
    The ability to quickly and accurately compare letters, numbers, objects, pictures, or patterns. The things to be compared may be presented at the same time or one after the other. This ability also includes comparing a presented object with a remembered object

    30 Mathematical Reasoning
    The ability to understand and organize a problem and then to select a mathematical method or formula to solve the problem

    30 Number Facility
    The ability to add, subtract, multiply, or divide quickly and correctly

    30 Visualization
    The ability to imagine how something will look after it is moved around or when its parts are moved or rearranged

    30 Auditory Attention
    The ability to focus on a single source of auditory (hearing) information in the presence of other distracting sounds

    25 Far Vision
    The ability to see details at a distance

    20 Trunk Strength
    The ability to use one's abdominal and lower back muscles to support part of the body repeatedly or continuously over time without "giving out" or fatiguing

    20 Hearing Sensitivity
    The ability to detect or tell the difference between sounds that vary over broad ranges of pitch and loudness

    15 Wrist-Finger Speed
    The ability to make fast, simple, repeated movements of the fingers, hands, and wrists

    15 Response Orientation
    The ability to choose quickly and correctly between two or more movements in response to two or more signals (lights, sounds, pictures, etc.). It includes the speed with which the correct response is started with the hand, foot, or other body parts

    10 Extent Flexibility
    The ability to bend, stretch, twist, or reach out with the body, arms, and/or legs

    5 Spatial Orientation
    The ability to know one's location in relation to the environment, or to know where other objects are in relation to one's self

    5 Manual Dexterity
    The ability to quickly make coordinated movements of one hand, a hand together with its arm, or two hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble objects

    5 Finger Dexterity
    The ability to make precisely coordinated movements of the fingers of one or both hands to grasp, manipulate, or assemble very small objects

    5 Control Precision
    The ability to quickly and repeatedly make precise adjustments in moving the controls of a machine or vehicle to exact positions

    5 Rate Control
    The ability to time the adjustments of a movement or equipment control in anticipation of changes in the speed and/or direction of a continuously moving object or scene

    5 Reaction Time
    The ability to quickly respond (with the hand, finger, or foot) to one signal (sound, light, picture, etc.) when it appears

    5 Sound Localization
    The ability to tell the direction from which a sound originated

    5 Arm-Hand Steadiness
    The ability to keep the hand and arm steady while making an arm movement or while holding the arm and hand in one position

    5 Peripheral Vision
    The ability to see objects or movement of objects to one's side when the eyes are focused forward

    5 Gross Body Coordination
    The ability to coordinate the movement of the arms, legs, and torso together in activities where the whole body is in motion

    WORK ACTIVITIES:
    Work activities elements are ranked by importance.

    95 Making Decisions and Solving Problems
    Combining, evaluating, and reasoning with information and data to make decisions and solve problems. These processes involve making decisions about the relative importance of information and choosing the best solution.

    90 Getting Information Needed to Do the Job
    Observing, receiving, and otherwise obtaining information from all relevant sources.

    90 Analyzing Data or Information
    Identifying underlying principles, reasons, or facts by breaking down information or data into separate parts.

    90 Identifying Objects, Actions, and Events
    Identifying information received by making estimates or categorizations, recognizing differences or similarities, or sensing changes in circumstances or events.

    85 Updating and Using Job-Relevant Knowledge
    Keeping up-to-date technically and knowing one's own jobs' and related jobs' functions.

    85 Communicating With Persons Outside Organization
    Communicating with persons outside the organization, representing the organization to customers, the public, government, and other external sources. This information can be exchanged face-to-face, in writing, or via telephone/electronic transfer.

    80 Judging Qualities of Things, Services, or People
    Making judgments about or assessing the value, importance, or quality of things or people.

    80 Teaching Others
    Identifying educational needs, developing formal training programs or classes, and teaching or instructing others.

    80 Establishing and Maintaining Relationships
    Developing constructive and cooperative working relationships with others.

    75 Communicating With Other Workers
    Providing information to supervisors, fellow workers, and subordinates. This information can be exchanged face-to-face, in writing, or via telephone/electronic transfer.

    75 Assisting and Caring for Others
    Providing assistance or personal care to others.

    75 Coordinating Work and Activities of Others
    Coordinating members of a work group to accomplish tasks.

    75 Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing
    Developing plans to accomplish work, and prioritizing and organizing one's own work.

    70 Monitor Processes, Material, or Surroundings
    Monitoring and reviewing information from materials, events, or the environment, often to detect problems or to find out when things are finished.

    70 Implementing Ideas or Programs
    Conducting or carrying out work procedures and activities in accord with one's own ideas or information provided through directions/instructions for purposes of installing, modifying, preparing, delivering, constructing, integrating, finishing, or completing programs, systems, structures, or products.

    70 Developing Objectives and Strategies
    Establishing long range objectives and specifying the strategies and actions to achieve these objectives.

    70 Performing For or Working With Public
    Performing for people or dealing directly with the public, including serving persons in restaurants and stores, and receiving clients or guests.

    65 Thinking Creatively
    Originating, inventing, designing, or creating new applications, ideas, relationships, systems, or products, including artistic contributions.

    60 Interpreting Meaning of Information to Others
    Translating or explaining what information means and how it can be understood or used to support responses or feedback to others.

    60 Documenting or Recording Information
    Entering, transcribing, recording, storing, or maintaining information in either written form or by electronic/magnetic recording.

    60 Processing Information
    Compiling, coding, categorizing, calculating, tabulating, auditing, verifying, or processing information or data.

    60 Guiding, Directing and Motivating Subordinates
    Providing guidance and direction to subordinates, including setting performance standards and monitoring subordinates.

    60 Coaching and Developing Others
    Identifying developmental needs of others and coaching or otherwise helping others to improve their knowledge or skills.

    55 Evaluating Information Against Standards
    Evaluating information against a set of standards and verifying that it is correct.

    55 Providing Consultation and Advice to Others
    Providing consultation and expert advice to management or other groups on technical, systems-related, or process related topics.

    50 Scheduling Work and Activities
    Scheduling events, programs, activities, as well as the work of others.

    40 Resolving Conflict or Negotiating with Others
    Handling complaints, arbitrating disputes, and resolving grievances, or otherwise negotiating with others.

    40 Interacting With Computers
    Controlling computer functions by using programs, setting up functions, writing software, or otherwise communicating with computer systems.

    40 Estimating Needed Characteristics
    Estimating the Characteristics of Materials, Products, Events, or Information: Estimating sizes, distances, and quantities, or determining time, costs, resources, or materials needed to perform a work activity.

    35 Selling or Influencing Others
    Convincing others to buy merchandise/goods, or otherwise changing their minds or actions.

    30 Performing Administrative Activities
    Approving requests, handling paperwork, and performing day-to-day administrative tasks.

    25 Inspecting Equipment, Structures, or Material
    Inspecting or diagnosing equipment, structures, or materials to identify the causes of errors or other problems or defects.

    20 Developing and Building Teams
    Encouraging and building mutual trust, respect, and cooperation among team members.

    15 Handling and Moving Objects
    Using one's own hands and arms in handling, installing, forming, positioning, and moving materials, or in manipulating things, including the use of keyboards.

    15 Performing General Physical Activities
    Performing physical activities that require moving one's whole body, such as in climbing, lifting, balancing, walking, stooping, where the activities often also require considerable use of the arms and legs, such as in the physical handling of materials.

    10 Controlling Machines and Processes
    Using either control mechanisms or direct physical activity to operate machines or processes (not including computers or vehicles).

    10 Monitoring and Controlling Resources
    Monitoring and controlling resources and overseeing the spending of money.

    10 Staffing Organizational Units
    Recruiting, interviewing, selecting, hiring, and promoting persons for the organization.

    5 Repairing and Maintaining Electrical Equipment
    Fixing, servicing, adjusting, regulating, calibrating, fine-tuning, or testing machines, devices, and equipment that operate primarily on the basis of electrical or electronic (not mechanical) principles.

    5 Repairing and Maintaining Mechanical Equipment
    Fixing, servicing, aligning, setting up, adjusting, and testing machines, devices, moving parts, and equipment that operate primarily on the basis of mechanical (not electronic) principles.

    WORK CONTEXT:
    Work context elements are ranked by frequency (F), importance (I), responsibility (R), amount of contact (C), how serious (S), objective vs. subjective (O), automation (A), extent of frustration (E), responsible for health and safety (H), likelihood of injury (L), degree of injury (D) .

    100 (F) Indoors
    How frequently does this job require the worker to work: Indoors

    96 (I) Provide a Service to Others
    How important are interactions requiring the worker to: Provide a service to others (e.g., customers)?

    92 (I) Importance of Being Sure All Is Done
    How important is it to be sure that all the details of this job are performed and everything is done completely?

    87 (C) Job-Required Social Interaction
    How much does this job require the worker to be in contact (face-to-face, by telephone, or otherwise) with others in order to perform it?

    80 (S) Consequence of Error
    How serious would the result usually be if the worker made a mistake that was not readily correctable?

    80 (F) Sitting
    How much time in a usual work period does the worker spend: Sitting?

    77 (O) Objective or Subjective Information
    How objective or subjective is the information communicated in this job?

    76 (I) Deal With External Customers
    How important are interactions requiring the worker to: Deal with external customers (e.g., retail sales) or the public in general (e.g., police work)?

    76 (I) Importance of Being Exact or Accurate
    How important is being very exact or highly accurate in performing this job?

    57 (E) Frustrating Circumstances
    To what extent do frustrating circumstances ("road blocks" to work that are beyond the worker's control) hinder the accomplishment of this job?

    54 (H) Responsible for Health and Safety of Others
    How responsible is the worker for others' health and safety on this job?

    52 (I) Coordinate or Lead Others
    How important are interactions requiring the worker to: Coordinate or lead others in accomplishing work activities (not supervision)?

    52 (I) Importance of Being Aware of New Events
    How important is being constantly aware of either frequently changing events (e.g. security guard watching for shoplifters) or infrequent events (e.g. radar operator watching for tornadoes) to performing this job?

    52 (I) Persuade Someone to a Course of Action
    How important are interactions requiring the worker to: Persuade someone to a course of action (informally) or influence others to buy something (to sell)?

    52 (I) Supervise, Coach, Train Others
    How important are interactions requiring the worker to: Supervise, coach, train, or develop other employees?

    50 (F) Frequency in Conflict Situations
    How frequently do the job requirements place the worker in conflict situations?

    45 (F) Deal With Unpleasant or Angry People
    How frequently does the worker have to deal with unpleasant, angry, or discourteous individuals as part of the job requirements?

    40 (F) Standing
    How much time in a usual work period does the worker spend: Standing?

    35 (F) Deal With Physically Aggressive People
    How frequently does this job require the worker to deal with physical aggression of violent individuals?

    30 (F) Using Hands on Objects, Tools, Controls
    How much time in a usual work period does the worker spend: Using hands to handle, control, or feel objects, tools or controls?

    29 (R) Responsibility for Outcomes and Results
    How responsible is the worker for work outcomes and results of other workers?

    24 (I) Take a Position Opposed to Others
    How important are interactions requiring the worker to: Take a position opposed to coworkers or others?

    16 (I) Importance of Repeating Same Tasks
    How important is repeating the same physical activities (e.g., key entry) or mental activities (e.g., checking entries in a ledger) over and over, without stopping, to performing this job?

    15 (F) Special Uniform
    How often does the worker wear: A special uniform, such as that of a commercial pilot, nurse, police officer, or military personnel?

    15 (F) Diseases or Infections
    How often does this job require the worker to be exposed to diseases/infection? Diseases/Infections (e.g., patient care, some laboratory work, sanitation control, etc.)

    10 (F) Walking or Running
    How much time in a usual work period does the worker spend: Walking or running?

    9 (L) Diseases or Infections
    What is the likelihood that the worker would be injured as a result of being exposed to diseases/infections while performing this job? Diseases/Infections (e.g., patient care, some laboratory work, sanitation control, etc.)

    8 (D) Diseases or Infections
    If injury, due to exposure to diseases/infection, were to occur while performing this job, how serious would be the likely outcome? Diseases/Infections (e.g., patient care, some laboratory work, sanitation control, etc.)

    5 (F) Sounds or Noise Levels Are Distracting
    How often during a usual work period is the worker exposed to the following conditions: Sounds and noise levels that are distracting and uncomfortable?

    5 (F) Bending or Twisting the Body
    How much time in a usual work period does the worker spend: Bending or twisting the body?

    5 (F) Common Protective or Safety Attire
    How often does the worker wear: Common protective or safety attire, such as safety shoes, glasses, gloves, hearing protection, hard-hat, or personal flotation device?

    5 (F) Making Repetitive Motions
    How much time in a usual work period does the worker spend: Making repetitive motions?

    5 (F) Outdoors
    How frequently does this job require the worker to work: Outdoors

    4 (A) Degree of Automation
    Indicate the level of automation of this job.

    INTERESTS:
    Interest elements are ranked by occupational interest.

    89 Investigative
    Investigative occupations frequently involve working with ideas, and require an extensive amount of thinking. These occupations can involve searching for facts and figuring out problems mentally.

    67 Artistic
    Artistic occupations frequently involve working with forms, designs and patterns. They often require self-expression and the work can be done without following a clear set of rules.

    61 Social
    Social occupations frequently involve working with, communicating with, and teaching people. These occupations often involve helping or providing service to others.

    33 Conventional
    Conventional occupations frequently involve following set procedures and routines. These occupations can include working with data and details more than with ideas. Usually there is a clear line of authority to follow.

    33 Enterprising
    Enterprising occupations frequently involve starting up and carrying out projects. These occupations can involve leading people and making many decisions. Sometimes they require risk taking and often deal with business.

    17 Realistic
    Realistic occupations frequently involve work activities that include practical, hands-on problems and solutions. They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require working outside, and do not involve a lot of paperwork or working closely with others.

    WORK VALUES:
    Work values elements are ranked by extent.

    93 Independence-Mean Extent
    Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employs to work on their own and make decisions. Corresponding needs are Creativity, Responsibility and Autonomy.

    89 Achievement-Mean Extent
    Occupations that satisfy this work value are results oriented and allow employees to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment. Corresponding needs are Ability Utilization and Achievement.

    73 Working Conditions-Mean Extent
    Occupations that satisfy this work value offer job security and good working conditions. Corresponding needs are Activity, Compensation, Independence, Security, Variety and Working Conditions.

    62 Recognition-Mean Extent
    Occupations that satisfy this work value offer advancement, potential for leadership, and are often considered prestigious. Corresponding needs are Advancement, Authority, Recognition and Social Status.

    59 Relationships-Mean Extent
    Occupations that satisfy this work value allow employees to provide service to others and work with co-workers in a friendly non-competitive environment. Corresponding needs are Co-workers, Moral Values and Social Service.

    22 Support-Mean Extent
    Occupations that satisfy this work value offer supportive management that stands behind employees. Corresponding needs are Company Policies, Supervision: Human Relations and Supervision: Technical.

    97 Social Service
    Workers on this job have work where they do things for other people

    97 Autonomy
    Workers on this job plan their work with little supervision

    91 Creativity
    Workers on this job try out their own ideas

    91 Ability Utilization
    Workers on this job make use of their individual abilities

    91 Responsibility
    Workers on this job make decisions on their own

    88 Working Conditions
    Workers on this job have good working conditions

    88 Achievement
    Workers on this job get a feeling of accomplishment

    81 Security
    Workers on this job have steady employment

    78 Compensation
    Workers on this job are paid well in comparison with other workers

    78 Social Status
    Workers on this job are looked up to by others in their company and their community

    75 Recognition
    Workers on this job receive recognition for the work they do

    72 Variety
    Workers on this job have something different to do every day

    63 Activity
    Workers on this job are busy all the time

    59 Independence
    Workers on this job do their work alone

    59 Authority
    Workers on this job give directions and instructions to others

    41 Moral Values
    Workers on this job are never pressured to do things that go against their sense of right and wrong

    41 Co-workers
    Workers on this job have co-workers who are easy to get along with

    34 Company Policies and Practices
    Workers on this job are treated fairly by the company

    34 Advancement
    Workers on this job have opportunities for advancement

    25 Supervision, Human Relations
    Workers on this job have supervisors who back up their workers with management

    6 Supervision, Technical
    Workers on this job have supervisors who train their workers well

    CROSSWALKS:
    DOT91 (Dictionary of Occupational Titles): 045107046 Psychologist, Chief
    045107050 Clinical Therapist
    045107022 Clinical Psychologist

    AIM97 (Apprenticeship Information Management): No crosswalks

    CEN90 (1990 Census Occupations): 167 Psychologists

    CIP90 (Classification of Instructional Programs): 420601 Counseling Psychology
    420201 Clinical Psychology
    420101 Psychology, General
    512705 Psychoanalysis

    GOE93 (Guide for Occupational Exploration): 100102 Social Services: Counseling and Social Work

    MOC97 (Military Occupational Codes): 0851 Clinical Psychologist
    73B Clinical Psychology
    71F Research Psychology
    67D Behavioral Sciences
    42P1A Clinical Psychologist
    42P3A Clinical Psychologist
    42P4A Clinical Psychologist

    OES98 (Occupational Employment Statistics): 27108 Psychologists

    OPM97 (Office of Personnel Management Occupations): 0180 Psychology

    SOC98 (Standard Occupational Classification): 19-3031 Clinical, Counseling, and School Psychologists


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